char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = .;code = 46
result sql = The effect of queen pheromones on worker honey bee ovary development.
The effect of queen pheromones on worker honey bee ovary development.
char = W;code = 87
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = d;code = 100
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = -;code = 45
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = y;code = 121
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = Q;code = 81
char = M;code = 77
char = P;code = 80
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = Q;code = 81
char = M;code = 77
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = Q;code = 81
char = M;code = 77
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = Q;code = 81
char = M;code = 77
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = Q;code = 81
char = M;code = 77
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = -;code = 45
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = E;code = 69
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
result sql = We report results that address a long-standing controversy in honey bee biology, the identity of the queen-produced compounds that inhibit worker honey bee ovary development. As the honey bee is the only organism for which identities have been proposed for any pheromone that regulates reproduction, the resolution of its identity is of broad significance. We examined the effects of synthetic honey bee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP), four newly identified queen retinue pheromone components, and whole-queen extracts on the ovary development of caged worker bees. The newly identified compounds did not inhibit worker ovary development alone, nor did they improve the efficacy of QMP when applied in combination. QMP was as effective as queen extracts at ovary regulation. Caged workers in the QMP and queen extract treatments had better developed ovaries than did workers remaining in queenright colonies. We conclude that QMP is responsible for the ovary-regulating pheromonal capability of queens from European-derived Apis mellifera subspecies.

Publication: Naturwissenschaften 2003 Oct ;90(10)::477-80.
Publication Date: 2003 Oct
Study Author(s): Hoover, Shelley E R;Keeling, Christopher I;Winston, Mark L;Slessor, Keith N;
Institution: Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada. sehoover@sfu.ca
Shortcut link to this study:
We report results that address a long-standing controversy in honey bee biology, the identity of the queen-produced compounds that inhibit worker honey bee ovary development. As the honey bee is the only organism for which identities have been proposed for any pheromone that regulates reproduction, the resolution of its identity is of broad significance. We examined the effects of synthetic honey bee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP), four newly identified queen retinue pheromone components, and whole-queen extracts on the ovary development of caged worker bees. The newly identified compounds did not inhibit worker ovary development alone, nor did they improve the efficacy of QMP when applied in combination. QMP was as effective as queen extracts at ovary regulation. Caged workers in the QMP and queen extract treatments had better developed ovaries than did workers remaining in queenright colonies. We conclude that QMP is responsible for the ovary-regulating pheromonal capability of queens from European-derived Apis mellifera subspecies.
PMID: 14564409

Have comments? Post them here:

comments powered by Disqus

Get breaking news about nutritional cures, dangerous chemicals, superfoods . and more.

Subscribe to the FREE Natural News email newsletter. Your privacy is protected.