char = E;code = 69
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Effects of heavy metals on earthworms along contamination gradients in organic rich soils.
Effects of heavy metals on earthworms along contamination gradients in organic rich soils.
char = E;code = 69
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = );code = 41
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = k;code = 107
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = E;code = 69
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = F;code = 70
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = E;code = 69
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 1;code = 49
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = 2;code = 50
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = 4;code = 52
char = ;code = 32
char = k;code = 107
char = m;code = 109
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = E;code = 69
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = z;code = 122
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = z;code = 122
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = -;code = 45
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
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char = ;code = 32
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char = m;code = 109
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char = r;code = 114
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char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
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char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
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char = ;code = 32
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char = ;code = 32
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char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
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char = r;code = 114
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result sql = Earthworm communities and metal (bio)availability to earthworms along contamination gradients was studied in order to support chemical analyses in risk assessment of metal contaminated soils. Earthworms were sampled in three metal contaminated areas with different habitat and soil properties in Finland. Earthworm and soil samples were collected at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) from the emission sources. Earthworms were identified as to species and analyzed for heavy metals. Total soil metal concentrations were analyzed using an ultrasound-assisted extraction method and bioavailable metal fraction was estimated by acetic acid extraction. In two of the three areas studied, heavy metal concentrations close to the emission sources were high enough to have harmful effects on earthworms and their environments. In general, diversity, total numbers, and biomass of earthworms increased with increasing distance from the emission sources. When individuals were available for analyses close to the emission source, positive correlations between metal concentrations in the earthworms and those in the soils were observed.

Publication: Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2004 Nov ;59(3)::340-8.
Publication Date: 2004 Nov
Study Author(s): Lukkari, Tuomas;Taavitsainen, Mirka;Väisänen, Ari;Haimi, Jari;
Institution: Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, PO Box 35, 40014, Jyvaskyla, Finland. tlukkari@bytl.jyu.fi
Shortcut link to this study:
Earthworm communities and metal (bio)availability to earthworms along contamination gradients was studied in order to support chemical analyses in risk assessment of metal contaminated soils. Earthworms were sampled in three metal contaminated areas with different habitat and soil properties in Finland. Earthworm and soil samples were collected at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) from the emission sources. Earthworms were identified as to species and analyzed for heavy metals. Total soil metal concentrations were analyzed using an ultrasound-assisted extraction method and bioavailable metal fraction was estimated by acetic acid extraction. In two of the three areas studied, heavy metal concentrations close to the emission sources were high enough to have harmful effects on earthworms and their environments. In general, diversity, total numbers, and biomass of earthworms increased with increasing distance from the emission sources. When individuals were available for analyses close to the emission source, positive correlations between metal concentrations in the earthworms and those in the soils were observed.
PMID: 15388274

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