char = H;code = 72
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = I;code = 73
char = V;code = 86
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = -;code = 45
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = K;code = 75
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = .;code = 46
result sql = High frequency of grossly deleted nef genes in HIV-1 infected long-term slow progressors treated with Korean red ginseng.
High frequency of grossly deleted nef genes in HIV-1 infected long-term slow progressors treated with Korean red ginseng.
char = T;code = 84
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = K;code = 75
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = K;code = 75
char = R;code = 82
char = G;code = 71
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = I;code = 73
char = V;code = 86
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = g;code = 103
char = D;code = 68
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = z;code = 122
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = -;code = 45
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
char = S;code = 83
char = P;code = 80
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = I;code = 73
char = V;code = 86
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = B;code = 66
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = 3;code = 51
char = 4;code = 52
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = ;code = 32
char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
char = S;code = 83
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = D;code = 68
char = 4;code = 52
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = 2;code = 50
char = 0;code = 48
char = /;code = 47
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = y;code = 121
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = K;code = 75
char = R;code = 82
char = G;code = 71
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = N;code = 78
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = B;code = 66
char = M;code = 77
char = C;code = 67
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = C;code = 67
char = R;code = 82
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = D;code = 68
char = 4;code = 52
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = 4;code = 52
char = 4;code = 52
char = 4;code = 52
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = /;code = 47
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = 2;code = 50
char = 0;code = 48
char = 7;code = 55
char = /;code = 47
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = 2;code = 50
char = 9;code = 57
char = 4;code = 52
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = /;code = 47
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 7;code = 55
char = 7;code = 55
char = /;code = 47
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 3;code = 51
char = 6;code = 54
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = /;code = 47
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = 2;code = 50
char = 3;code = 51
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = K;code = 75
char = R;code = 82
char = G;code = 71
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
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char = p;code = 112
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char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
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char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
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char = D;code = 68
char = e;code = 101
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char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
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char = 3;code = 51
char = 4;code = 52
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char = 3;code = 51
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char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
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char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
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char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
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char = l;code = 108
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char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
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char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
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char = .;code = 46
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char = i;code = 105
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char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
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char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
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char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
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char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
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char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
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char = 0;code = 48
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char = ;code = 32
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char = d;code = 100
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char = ;code = 32
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char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
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char = l;code = 108
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char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
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char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
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char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
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char = K;code = 75
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char = o;code = 111
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char = ;code = 32
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char = ;code = 32
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char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
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char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
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char = s;code = 115
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char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
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char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
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char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
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char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = K;code = 75
char = R;code = 82
char = G;code = 71
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char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
result sql = To investigate the association between Korean red ginseng (KRG) intake in HIV-1 infected patients and the occurrence of grossly deleted nef genes (gDeltanef), we characterized nef genes in 10 long-term slow progressors (LTSP) infected with HIV-1 subtype B and 34 control patients LTSP : was defined by the annual decrease in CD4 T cells being less than 20/microl over 10 years in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. They were treated with KRG for a prolonged period. Nef genes were amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using nested PCR and the products were sequenced directly. It was observed that the patients CD4 T cell counts decreased from 444 +/- 207/microl to 294 +/- 177/microl over 136 +/- 23 months of KRG intake. This corresponds to an annual decrease in the level of CD4 T cells of 13.3/microl. A total of 479 nef genes were amplified from 137 PBMC samples. Nine out of the 10 patients, 47 (34.3%) out of the 137 samples, and 90 out of the 479 genes revealed gDeltanef. The deletion extended outside the nef gene in 25 gDeltanef obtained from 6 patients. The proportion of samples with gDeltanef (34.3%) was significantly higher than 4.8% in control patients (P < 0.001). In addition, it significantly increased as the duration of KRG intake prolongs (P < 0.01). These data suggest that the occurrence of gDeltanef might be associated with long-term intake of KRG.

Publication: Curr. HIV Res. 2006 Oct ;4(4)::447-57.
Publication Date: 2006 Oct
Study Author(s): Cho, Young K;Lim, Ji Y;Jung, You S;Oh, Sun K;Lee, Hee J;Sung, Heungsup;
Institution: Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. ykcho2@amc.seoul.kr
Shortcut link to this study:
To investigate the association between Korean red ginseng (KRG) intake in HIV-1 infected patients and the occurrence of grossly deleted nef genes (gDeltanef), we characterized nef genes in 10 long-term slow progressors (LTSP) infected with HIV-1 subtype B and 34 control patients LTSP : was defined by the annual decrease in CD4 T cells being less than 20/microl over 10 years in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. They were treated with KRG for a prolonged period. Nef genes were amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using nested PCR and the products were sequenced directly. It was observed that the patients CD4 T cell counts decreased from 444 +/- 207/microl to 294 +/- 177/microl over 136 +/- 23 months of KRG intake. This corresponds to an annual decrease in the level of CD4 T cells of 13.3/microl. A total of 479 nef genes were amplified from 137 PBMC samples. Nine out of the 10 patients, 47 (34.3%) out of the 137 samples, and 90 out of the 479 genes revealed gDeltanef. The deletion extended outside the nef gene in 25 gDeltanef obtained from 6 patients. The proportion of samples with gDeltanef (34.3%) was significantly higher than 4.8% in control patients (P < 0.001). In addition, it significantly increased as the duration of KRG intake prolongs (P < 0.01). These data suggest that the occurrence of gDeltanef might be associated with long-term intake of KRG.
PMID: 17073619

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