char = A;code = 65
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = s;code = 115
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ?;code = 63
result sql = Acute hepatitis C in Israel: a predominantly iatrogenic disease?
Acute hepatitis C in Israel: a predominantly iatrogenic disease?
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = B;code = 66
char = A;code = 65
char = C;code = 67
char = K;code = 75
char = G;code = 71
char = R;code = 82
char = O;code = 79
char = U;code = 85
char = N;code = 78
char = D;code = 68
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = N;code = 78
char = D;code = 68
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = I;code = 73
char = M;code = 77
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = A;code = 65
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = j;code = 106
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = r;code = 114
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = s;code = 115
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = M;code = 77
char = E;code = 69
char = T;code = 84
char = H;code = 72
char = O;code = 79
char = D;code = 68
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = s;code = 115
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = k;code = 107
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = y;code = 121
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = k;code = 107
char = -;code = 45
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = S;code = 83
char = U;code = 85
char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = T;code = 84
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = -;code = 45
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
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char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
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char = C;code = 67
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 7;code = 55
char = 5;code = 53
char = %;code = 37
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 6;code = 54
char = 5;code = 53
char = %;code = 37
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = j;code = 106
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = r;code = 114
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = C;code = 67
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = C;code = 67
char = L;code = 76
char = U;code = 85
char = S;code = 83
char = I;code = 73
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = A;code = 65
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
result sql = BACKGROUND AND AIMS : Acute hepatitis C virus infection in the era of universal screening of blood products has not disappeared, and is thought to be transmitted primarily via injecting drug use. A growing body of evidence supports iatrogenic transmission as an important mode of transmission. The aim of this study was to examine transmission routes and clinical characteristics in a group of patients with acute hepatitis C in Israel.

METHODS : A retrospective chart review was conducted in three different liver clinics in Israel, of all new hepatitis C patients. Patients identified as possible acute hepatitis C were re-interviewed and all other sources such as blood bank records and pre-employment check-ups reviewed in order to establish the diagnosis of acute hepatitis C infection and to identify the transmission route.

RESULTS : Twenty-nine patients were found to have acute hepatitis C, representing 0.75% of all new referrals for hepatitis C. The most frequent (65%) mode of transmission was iatrogenic involving several, often minimal, procedures and clinical settings. The group in which iatrogenic transmission was suspected was older and the patients more often in monogamous relationship compared with other transmission routes groups. Injecting drug use was the second most common route of infection. Spontaneous seroconversion has occurred in approximately one third of the patients.

CONCLUSIONS : Acute hepatitis C in the post universal blood products screening era was found to be predominantly an iatrogenic disease in the investigated localities. This finding should direct attention and resources towards the development and implementation of preventive measures.

Publication: J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2007 Feb ;22(2)::158-64.
Publication Date: 2007 Feb
Study Author(s): Lurie, Yoav;Landau, Dan-Avi;Blendis, Laurence;Baruch, Yaacov;Veitsman, Ella;Ackermann, Zvi;Zelber-Sagie, Shira;Halpern, Zamir;Oren, Ran;
Institution: Liver Disease Unit, Gastroenterology Institute, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel. dr_lurie@tasmc.health.gov.il
Shortcut link to this study:
BACKGROUND AND AIMS : Acute hepatitis C virus infection in the era of universal screening of blood products has not disappeared, and is thought to be transmitted primarily via injecting drug use. A growing body of evidence supports iatrogenic transmission as an important mode of transmission. The aim of this study was to examine transmission routes and clinical characteristics in a group of patients with acute hepatitis C in Israel.

METHODS : A retrospective chart review was conducted in three different liver clinics in Israel, of all new hepatitis C patients. Patients identified as possible acute hepatitis C were re-interviewed and all other sources such as blood bank records and pre-employment check-ups reviewed in order to establish the diagnosis of acute hepatitis C infection and to identify the transmission route.

RESULTS : Twenty-nine patients were found to have acute hepatitis C, representing 0.75% of all new referrals for hepatitis C. The most frequent (65%) mode of transmission was iatrogenic involving several, often minimal, procedures and clinical settings. The group in which iatrogenic transmission was suspected was older and the patients more often in monogamous relationship compared with other transmission routes groups. Injecting drug use was the second most common route of infection. Spontaneous seroconversion has occurred in approximately one third of the patients.

CONCLUSIONS : Acute hepatitis C in the post universal blood products screening era was found to be predominantly an iatrogenic disease in the investigated localities. This finding should direct attention and resources towards the development and implementation of preventive measures.
PMID: 17295865

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