char = P;code = 80
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Prevention of liver cirrhosis in rats by curcumin.
Prevention of liver cirrhosis in rats by curcumin.
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = B;code = 66
char = A;code = 65
char = C;code = 67
char = K;code = 75
char = G;code = 71
char = R;code = 82
char = O;code = 79
char = U;code = 85
char = N;code = 78
char = D;code = 68
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = N;code = 78
char = D;code = 68
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = I;code = 73
char = M;code = 77
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = C;code = 67
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = j;code = 106
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = j;code = 106
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ';code = 39
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = M;code = 77
char = E;code = 69
char = T;code = 84
char = H;code = 72
char = O;code = 79
char = D;code = 68
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = L;code = 76
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = T;code = 84
char = A;code = 65
char = A;code = 65
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = 2;code = 50
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
char = /;code = 47
char = k;code = 107
char = g;code = 103
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = .;code = 46
char = p;code = 112
char = .;code = 46
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = k;code = 107
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 2;code = 50
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = k;code = 107
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = O;code = 79
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 3;code = 51
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
char = /;code = 47
char = k;code = 107
char = g;code = 103
char = /;code = 47
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 2;code = 50
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = k;code = 107
char = s;code = 115
char = );code = 41
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = S;code = 83
char = U;code = 85
char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = T;code = 84
char = A;code = 65
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = L;code = 76
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = y;code = 121
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = d;code = 100
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = A;code = 65
char = A;code = 65
char = +;code = 43
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = A;code = 65
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = <;code = 60
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = z;code = 122
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = I;code = 73
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = A;code = 65
char = A;code = 65
char = +;code = 43
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = +;code = 43
char = T;code = 84
char = A;code = 65
char = A;code = 65
char = -;code = 45
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = S;code = 83
char = C;code = 67
char = -;code = 45
char = T;code = 84
char = 6;code = 54
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = I;code = 73
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = N;code = 78
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = F;code = 70
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = D;code = 68
char = G;code = 71
char = F;code = 70
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = I;code = 73
char = M;code = 77
char = P;code = 80
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = I;code = 73
char = M;code = 77
char = P;code = 80
char = -;code = 45
char = 2;code = 50
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = G;code = 71
char = F;code = 70
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = 1;code = 49
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = G;code = 71
char = F;code = 70
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = 2;code = 50
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = C;code = 67
char = P;code = 80
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
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result sql = BACKGROUND AND AIM : Curcumin, the major polyphenolic compound in turmeric, has been shown to attenuate hepatic damage in several animal models of liver injury. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of curcumin in preventing thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis and to unravel the mechanism of curcumin's effect on hepatic fibrosis in rats.

METHODS : Liver cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA; 200 mg/kg, i.p.) twice weekly for 12 weeks. One group of rats concomitantly received curcumin (300 mg/kg/day, by gavage for 12 weeks); the control group received the solvent at identical amounts and duration.

RESULTS : TAA administration induced liver cirrhosis, which was inhibited by curcumin. Liver histopathology, hydroxyproline levels and spleen weights were significantly lower in the rats treated with TAA+curcumin compared with TAA only (P<0.001). Immunohistochemical studies and in situ hybridization demonstrated inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (alpha smooth muscle actin-positive) activation and collagen alpha1 (I) gene expression in the livers of the TAA+curcumin-treated rats. Curcumin reduced oxidative stress as shown by the decreased hepatic nitrotyrosine staining in the curcumin+TAA-treated rats. Curcumin treatment had no effect on pre existing liver cirrhosis. As determined by in vitro studies using the rat HSC-T6 cell line, curcumin had no direct inhibitory effect on collagen alpha1 (I) messenger RNA expression. Further studies in these cells using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that curcumin had no effect on the expression of PDGF-induced TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2 and MCP-1 but significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Curcumin had no effect on hepatic stellate cells proliferation. Zymography showed that curcumin had no effect on matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity.

CONCLUSIONS : Curcumin inhibited the development of TAA-induced liver cirrhosis mainly due to its anti-inflammatory activities and not by a direct anti-fibrotic effect. As curcumin ingestion is safe in humans, it may be reasonable to assess in clinical studies the beneficial effect of curcumin in slowing the development of liver cirrhosis.

Publication: Liver Int. 2007 Apr ;27(3)::373-83.
Publication Date: 2007 Apr
Study Author(s): Bruck, Rafael;Ashkenazi, Michal;Weiss, Sigal;Goldiner, Ilana;Shapiro, Haim;Aeed, Hussein;Genina, Olga;Helpern, Zamir;Pines, Mark;
Institution: The Department of Gastroenterology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel. rafib@tasmc.health.gov.il
Shortcut link to this study:
BACKGROUND AND AIM : Curcumin, the major polyphenolic compound in turmeric, has been shown to attenuate hepatic damage in several animal models of liver injury. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of curcumin in preventing thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis and to unravel the mechanism of curcumin's effect on hepatic fibrosis in rats.

METHODS : Liver cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA; 200 mg/kg, i.p.) twice weekly for 12 weeks. One group of rats concomitantly received curcumin (300 mg/kg/day, by gavage for 12 weeks); the control group received the solvent at identical amounts and duration.

RESULTS : TAA administration induced liver cirrhosis, which was inhibited by curcumin. Liver histopathology, hydroxyproline levels and spleen weights were significantly lower in the rats treated with TAA+curcumin compared with TAA only (P<0.001). Immunohistochemical studies and in situ hybridization demonstrated inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (alpha smooth muscle actin-positive) activation and collagen alpha1 (I) gene expression in the livers of the TAA+curcumin-treated rats. Curcumin reduced oxidative stress as shown by the decreased hepatic nitrotyrosine staining in the curcumin+TAA-treated rats. Curcumin treatment had no effect on pre existing liver cirrhosis. As determined by in vitro studies using the rat HSC-T6 cell line, curcumin had no direct inhibitory effect on collagen alpha1 (I) messenger RNA expression. Further studies in these cells using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that curcumin had no effect on the expression of PDGF-induced TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2 and MCP-1 but significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Curcumin had no effect on hepatic stellate cells proliferation. Zymography showed that curcumin had no effect on matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity.

CONCLUSIONS : Curcumin inhibited the development of TAA-induced liver cirrhosis mainly due to its anti-inflammatory activities and not by a direct anti-fibrotic effect. As curcumin ingestion is safe in humans, it may be reasonable to assess in clinical studies the beneficial effect of curcumin in slowing the development of liver cirrhosis.
PMID: 17355460

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