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char = -;code = 45
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char = p;code = 112
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char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
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char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
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char = m;code = 109
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char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
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char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
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char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
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char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
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char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
result sql = R-spondin1, a novel intestinotrophic mitogen, ameliorates experimental colitis in mice.
R-spondin1, a novel intestinotrophic mitogen, ameliorates experimental colitis in mice.
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = B;code = 66
char = A;code = 65
char = C;code = 67
char = K;code = 75
char = G;code = 71
char = R;code = 82
char = O;code = 79
char = U;code = 85
char = N;code = 78
char = D;code = 68
char = ;code = 32
char = &;code = 38
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = I;code = 73
char = M;code = 77
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
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char = >;code = 62
char = R;code = 82
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char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
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char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
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char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
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char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
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char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
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char = e;code = 101
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char = l;code = 108
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char = e;code = 101
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char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
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char = s;code = 115
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char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
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char = o;code = 111
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char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
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char = c;code = 99
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char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
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char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
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char = m;code = 109
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char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = M;code = 77
char = E;code = 69
char = T;code = 84
char = H;code = 72
char = O;code = 79
char = D;code = 68
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = W;code = 87
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char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
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char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
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char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
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char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
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char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
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char = i;code = 105
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char = i;code = 105
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char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
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char = (;code = 40
char = D;code = 68
char = S;code = 83
char = S;code = 83
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = z;code = 122
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = T;code = 84
char = N;code = 78
char = B;code = 66
char = S;code = 83
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
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char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
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char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = r;code = 114
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
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char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = u;code = 117
char = k;code = 107
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = I;code = 73
char = L;code = 76
char = );code = 41
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = -;code = 45
char = d;code = 100
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char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
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char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
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char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
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char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = S;code = 83
char = U;code = 85
char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
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char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
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char = m;code = 109
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char = n;code = 110
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char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
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char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
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char = R;code = 82
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char = o;code = 111
char = 1;code = 49
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char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
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char = l;code = 108
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char = s;code = 115
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
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char = b;code = 98
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char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
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char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
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char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = m;code = 109
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char = c;code = 99
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char = u;code = 117
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char = i;code = 105
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char = ;code = 32
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char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
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char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
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char = R;code = 82
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char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
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char = i;code = 105
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char = b;code = 98
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char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
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char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = D;code = 68
char = S;code = 83
char = S;code = 83
char = -;code = 45
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = D;code = 68
char = S;code = 83
char = S;code = 83
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = y;code = 121
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = k;code = 107
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = -;code = 45
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = L;code = 76
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = L;code = 76
char = -;code = 45
char = 6;code = 54
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = y;code = 121
char = -;code = 45
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = D;code = 68
char = S;code = 83
char = S;code = 83
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = L;code = 76
char = i;code = 105
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
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char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = N;code = 78
char = B;code = 66
char = S;code = 83
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
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char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
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char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = F;code = 70
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
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char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
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char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
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char = i;code = 105
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char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
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char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
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char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = -;code = 45
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = L;code = 76
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = (;code = 40
char = -;code = 45
char = /;code = 47
char = -;code = 45
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = E;code = 69
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = z;code = 122
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = C;code = 67
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = C;code = 67
char = L;code = 76
char = U;code = 85
char = S;code = 83
char = I;code = 73
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
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char = t;code = 116
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char = 1;code = 49
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char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
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char = e;code = 101
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char = h;code = 104
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char = i;code = 105
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char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
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char = s;code = 115
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char = m;code = 109
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char = e;code = 101
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char = n;code = 110
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char = s;code = 115
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char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
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result sql = BACKGROUND & AIMS : R-spondin 1 (Rspo1) is a novel epithelial mitogen that stimulates the growth of mucosa in both the small and large intestine.

METHODS : We investigated the therapeutic potential of Rspo1 in ameliorating experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced colitis in interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice.

RESULTS : Therapeutic administration of recombinant Rspo1 protein reduced the loss of body weight, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding in a mouse model of acute or chronic DSS-induced colitis. Histologic evaluation revealed that Rspo1 improved mucosal integrity in both villus and/or crypt compartments in the small intestine and colon by stimulating crypt cell growth and mucosal regeneration in DSS-treated mice. Moreover, Rspo1 significantly reduced DSS-induced myeloperoxidase activity and inhibited the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-6, interferon-gamma, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in mouse intestinal tissue, indicating that Rspo1 may reduce DSS-induced inflammation by preserving the mucosal barrier function. Likewise, Rspo1 therapy also alleviated TNBS-induced interstitial inflammation and mucosal erosion in the mouse colon. Furthermore, Rspo1 substantially decreased the histopathologic severity of chronic enterocolitis by repairing crypt epithelium and simultaneously suppressing inflammatory infiltration in piroxicam-exposed IL-10(-/-) mice. Endogenous Rspo1 protein was localized to villus epithelium and crypt Paneth cells in mouse small intestine.

CONCLUSIONS : Our results show that Rspo1 may be clinically useful in the therapeutic treatment of inflammatory bowel disease by stimulating crypt cell growth, accelerating mucosal regeneration, and restoring intestinal architecture.

Publication: Gastroenterology 2007 Apr ;132(4)::1331-43.
Publication Date: 2007 Apr
Study Author(s): Zhao, Jingsong;de Vera, Josephine;Narushima, Seiko;Beck, Eric X;Palencia, Servando;Shinkawa, Pauline;Kim, Kyung-Ah;Liu, Yi;Levy, Michael D;Berg, Daniel J;Abo, Arie;Funk, Walter D;
Institution: Department of Research, Nuvelo, Inc, San Carlos, California, USA. jzhao@nuvelo.com
Shortcut link to this study:
BACKGROUND & AIMS : R-spondin 1 (Rspo1) is a novel epithelial mitogen that stimulates the growth of mucosa in both the small and large intestine.

METHODS : We investigated the therapeutic potential of Rspo1 in ameliorating experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced colitis in interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice.

RESULTS : Therapeutic administration of recombinant Rspo1 protein reduced the loss of body weight, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding in a mouse model of acute or chronic DSS-induced colitis. Histologic evaluation revealed that Rspo1 improved mucosal integrity in both villus and/or crypt compartments in the small intestine and colon by stimulating crypt cell growth and mucosal regeneration in DSS-treated mice. Moreover, Rspo1 significantly reduced DSS-induced myeloperoxidase activity and inhibited the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-6, interferon-gamma, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in mouse intestinal tissue, indicating that Rspo1 may reduce DSS-induced inflammation by preserving the mucosal barrier function. Likewise, Rspo1 therapy also alleviated TNBS-induced interstitial inflammation and mucosal erosion in the mouse colon. Furthermore, Rspo1 substantially decreased the histopathologic severity of chronic enterocolitis by repairing crypt epithelium and simultaneously suppressing inflammatory infiltration in piroxicam-exposed IL-10(-/-) mice. Endogenous Rspo1 protein was localized to villus epithelium and crypt Paneth cells in mouse small intestine.

CONCLUSIONS : Our results show that Rspo1 may be clinically useful in the therapeutic treatment of inflammatory bowel disease by stimulating crypt cell growth, accelerating mucosal regeneration, and restoring intestinal architecture.
PMID: 17408649

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