char = P;code = 80
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = k;code = 107
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char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
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char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
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char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = x;code = 120
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = I;code = 73
char = V;code = 86
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Pharmacokinetic and metabolic effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in healthy volunteers receiving the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir.
Pharmacokinetic and metabolic effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in healthy volunteers receiving the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir.
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = B;code = 66
char = A;code = 65
char = C;code = 67
char = K;code = 75
char = G;code = 71
char = R;code = 82
char = O;code = 79
char = U;code = 85
char = N;code = 78
char = D;code = 68
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = C;code = 67
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = C;code = 67
char = A;code = 65
char = M;code = 77
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
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char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
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char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = I;code = 73
char = V;code = 86
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
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char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
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char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = G;code = 71
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
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char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
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char = d;code = 100
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char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = I;code = 73
char = V;code = 86
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = I;code = 73
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = k;code = 107
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = A;code = 65
char = G;code = 71
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = I;code = 73
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = V;code = 86
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
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char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
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char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
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char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
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char = a;code = 97
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char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
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char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
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char = c;code = 99
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char = i;code = 105
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char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
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char = i;code = 105
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char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
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char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = V;code = 86
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = G;code = 71
char = ,;code = 44
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char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
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char = e;code = 101
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char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = G;code = 71
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = V;code = 86
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
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char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
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char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
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char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
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char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = M;code = 77
char = E;code = 69
char = T;code = 84
char = H;code = 72
char = O;code = 79
char = D;code = 68
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
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char = b;code = 98
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char = A;code = 65
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char = e;code = 101
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char = a;code = 97
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char = m;code = 109
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char = t;code = 116
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
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char = u;code = 117
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char = i;code = 105
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char = s;code = 115
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char = i;code = 105
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char = i;code = 105
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char = c;code = 99
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char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
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char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
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char = v;code = 118
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char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
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char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
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char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
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char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = V;code = 86
char = ;code = 32
char = 8;code = 56
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = 8;code = 56
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
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char = d;code = 100
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char = s;code = 115
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char = e;code = 101
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char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
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char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
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char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
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char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
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char = >;code = 62
char = T;code = 84
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char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
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char = ;code = 32
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char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
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char = h;code = 104
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char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
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char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
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char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
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char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
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char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = G;code = 71
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = V;code = 86
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
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char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
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char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
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char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
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char = u;code = 117
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char = d;code = 100
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char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
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char = d;code = 100
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char = p;code = 112
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char = ;code = 32
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char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
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char = ;code = 32
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char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = M;code = 77
char = /;code = 47
char = I;code = 73
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
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char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
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char = ;code = 32
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char = %;code = 37
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = 3;code = 51
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = V;code = 86
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
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char = .;code = 46
char = 1;code = 49
char = 1;code = 49
char = 3;code = 51
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = /;code = 47
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = 2;code = 50
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 9;code = 57
char = 6;code = 54
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = /;code = 47
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = 4;code = 52
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
char = /;code = 47
char = k;code = 107
char = g;code = 103
char = F;code = 70
char = F;code = 70
char = M;code = 77
char = /;code = 47
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = U;code = 85
char = /;code = 47
char = m;code = 109
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 3;code = 51
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 1;code = 49
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = /;code = 47
char = I;code = 73
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = V;code = 86
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = G;code = 71
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = C;code = 67
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = C;code = 67
char = L;code = 76
char = U;code = 85
char = S;code = 83
char = I;code = 73
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = V;code = 86
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = G;code = 71
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = G;code = 71
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = V;code = 86
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = k;code = 107
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
result sql = BACKGROUND : Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is prevalent among HIV-infected patients to reduce the toxicity of antiretroviral therapy. Ginseng has been used for treatment of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, a common side effect of some HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PI). However, it is unknown whether American ginseng (AG) can reverse insulin resistance induced by the PI indinavir (IDV), and whether these two agents interact pharmacologically. We evaluated potential pharmacokinetic interactions between IDV and AG, and assessed whether AG improves IDV-induced insulin resistance.

METHODS : After baseline assessment of insulin sensitivity using the insulin clamp technique, healthy volunteers received IDV 800 mg q8 h for 3 days and then IDV and AG 1g q8h for 14 days. IDV pharmacokinetics and insulin sensitivity were assessed before and after AG co-administration.

RESULTS : There was no difference in the area-under the plasma-concentration-time curve after the co-administration of AG, compared to IDV alone (n = 13). Although insulin-stimulated glucose disposal per unit of insulin (M/I) decreased by an average of 14.8 +/- 5.9% after 3 days of IDV (from 0.113 +/- 0.012 to 0.096 +/- 0.014 mg/kgFFM/min per muU/ml of insulin, p = 0.03, n = 11), M/I remained unchanged after co-administration of IDV and AG.

CONCLUSION : IDV decreases insulin sensitivity, which is unaltered by AG co-administration. AG does not significantly affect IDV pharmacokinetics.

Publication: BMC Complement Altern Med 2008 ;8:50. :doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-8-50.
Publication Date: 2008
Study Author(s): Andrade, Adriana S A;Hendrix, Craig;Parsons, Teresa L;Caballero, Benjamin;Yuan, Chun-Su;Flexner, Charles W;Dobs, Adrian S;Brown, Todd T;
Institution: Division of Infectious Diseases, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. aandrade@jhmi.edu
Shortcut link to this study:
BACKGROUND : Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is prevalent among HIV-infected patients to reduce the toxicity of antiretroviral therapy. Ginseng has been used for treatment of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, a common side effect of some HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PI). However, it is unknown whether American ginseng (AG) can reverse insulin resistance induced by the PI indinavir (IDV), and whether these two agents interact pharmacologically. We evaluated potential pharmacokinetic interactions between IDV and AG, and assessed whether AG improves IDV-induced insulin resistance.

METHODS : After baseline assessment of insulin sensitivity using the insulin clamp technique, healthy volunteers received IDV 800 mg q8 h for 3 days and then IDV and AG 1g q8h for 14 days. IDV pharmacokinetics and insulin sensitivity were assessed before and after AG co-administration.

RESULTS : There was no difference in the area-under the plasma-concentration-time curve after the co-administration of AG, compared to IDV alone (n = 13). Although insulin-stimulated glucose disposal per unit of insulin (M/I) decreased by an average of 14.8 +/- 5.9% after 3 days of IDV (from 0.113 +/- 0.012 to 0.096 +/- 0.014 mg/kgFFM/min per muU/ml of insulin, p = 0.03, n = 11), M/I remained unchanged after co-administration of IDV and AG.

CONCLUSION : IDV decreases insulin sensitivity, which is unaltered by AG co-administration. AG does not significantly affect IDV pharmacokinetics.
PMID: 18713456

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