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result sql = Anemia in cystic fibrosis: incidence, mechanisms, and association with pulmonary function and vitamin deficiency.
Anemia in cystic fibrosis: incidence, mechanisms, and association with pulmonary function and vitamin deficiency.
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char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
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char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
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char = e;code = 101
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char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
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char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 2;code = 50
char = %;code = 37
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 6;code = 54
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
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char = ;code = 32
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char = ;code = 32
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char = r;code = 114
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char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
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char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
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char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
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char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
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char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
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char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
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char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
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char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
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char = v;code = 118
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = F;code = 70
char = E;code = 69
char = V;code = 86
char = (;code = 40
char = 1;code = 49
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char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = F;code = 70
char = V;code = 86
char = C;code = 67
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = 5;code = 53
char = 1;code = 49
char = .;code = 46
char = 6;code = 54
char = %;code = 37
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = S;code = 83
char = E;code = 69
char = M;code = 77
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = /;code = 47
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
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char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = 6;code = 54
char = 9;code = 57
char = .;code = 46
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char = %;code = 37
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = S;code = 83
char = E;code = 69
char = M;code = 77
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = /;code = 47
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = 9;code = 57
char = .;code = 46
char = 3;code = 51
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = 8;code = 56
char = 2;code = 50
char = .;code = 46
char = 5;code = 53
char = %;code = 37
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = S;code = 83
char = E;code = 69
char = M;code = 77
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = /;code = 47
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = 9;code = 57
char = .;code = 46
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char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = 9;code = 57
char = 5;code = 53
char = %;code = 37
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = S;code = 83
char = E;code = 69
char = M;code = 77
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = /;code = 47
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = 8;code = 56
char = .;code = 46
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char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
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char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
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char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
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char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = O;code = 79
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = 9;code = 57
char = 0;code = 48
char = %;code = 37
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = 5;code = 53
char = 9;code = 57
char = .;code = 46
char = 5;code = 53
char = %;code = 37
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 2;code = 50
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 7;code = 55
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = 4;code = 52
char = 8;code = 56
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = C;code = 67
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = C;code = 67
char = L;code = 76
char = U;code = 85
char = S;code = 83
char = I;code = 73
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = A;code = 65
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = F;code = 70
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = F;code = 70
char = .;code = 46
result sql = BACKGROUND : Anemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in many chronic diseases. Little is known about anemia in cystic fibrosis (CF). Because the majority of patients with CF die of lung disease, the objective of this study was to identify the frequency, severity, and mechanisms of anemia in CF and to determine if there was an association between anemia and poor lung function in these patients. Vitamin deficiency was used to assess the association of malabsorption and anemia.

METHODS : Charts of 218 CF patients (ages >1 month to 61 years) were reviewed. Information extracted included medical history, complete blood counts, iron studies, pulmonary function tests, vitamin levels, serum creatinine levels, and medications.

RESULTS : As patients aged, anemia increased from 12% in those < 16 to 58.3% > or = age 40. Anemic patients had poorer lung function than nonanemic patients. Mean forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were 51.6% (SEM +/- 10.3) and 69.7% (SEM +/- 9.3) in anemic and 82.5% (SEM +/- 9.2) and 95% (SEM +/- 8.3) in nonanemic patients, respectively (P < .001). Of vitamin-deficient patients, 90% were anemic whereas only 59.5% of nonvitamin-deficient patients were anemic (P = .02). Complete iron studies were only available in 17 of 48 anemic patients and 11 were diagnosed with iron deficiency.

CONCLUSIONS : Anemia in CF is associated with poor lung function and vitamin deficiency. Although anemia was often incompletely evaluated, iron deficiency was common. Recognition and complete evaluation of anemia might be important for continued improvement of care in CF.

Publication: Nutr Clin Pract 2008 Oct-Nov ;23(5)::557-63. :doi: 10.1177/0884533608323426.
Publication Date: 2008 Oct-Nov
Study Author(s): von Drygalski, Annette;Biller, Julie;
Institution: VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, 111E, San Diego, CA 92161, USA. avondrygalski@ucsd.edu
Shortcut link to this study:
BACKGROUND : Anemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in many chronic diseases. Little is known about anemia in cystic fibrosis (CF). Because the majority of patients with CF die of lung disease, the objective of this study was to identify the frequency, severity, and mechanisms of anemia in CF and to determine if there was an association between anemia and poor lung function in these patients. Vitamin deficiency was used to assess the association of malabsorption and anemia.

METHODS : Charts of 218 CF patients (ages >1 month to 61 years) were reviewed. Information extracted included medical history, complete blood counts, iron studies, pulmonary function tests, vitamin levels, serum creatinine levels, and medications.

RESULTS : As patients aged, anemia increased from 12% in those < 16 to 58.3% > or = age 40. Anemic patients had poorer lung function than nonanemic patients. Mean forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were 51.6% (SEM +/- 10.3) and 69.7% (SEM +/- 9.3) in anemic and 82.5% (SEM +/- 9.2) and 95% (SEM +/- 8.3) in nonanemic patients, respectively (P < .001). Of vitamin-deficient patients, 90% were anemic whereas only 59.5% of nonvitamin-deficient patients were anemic (P = .02). Complete iron studies were only available in 17 of 48 anemic patients and 11 were diagnosed with iron deficiency.

CONCLUSIONS : Anemia in CF is associated with poor lung function and vitamin deficiency. Although anemia was often incompletely evaluated, iron deficiency was common. Recognition and complete evaluation of anemia might be important for continued improvement of care in CF.
PMID: 18849562

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