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char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
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char = T;code = 84
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char = m;code = 109
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char = O;code = 79
char = f;code = 102
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char = (;code = 40
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char = L;code = 76
char = U;code = 85
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char = e;code = 101
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char = ;code = 32
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char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Effects of clopidogrel and aspirin in combination versus aspirin alone on platelet activation and major receptor expression in diabetic patients: the PLavix Use for Treatment Of Diabetes (PLUTO-Diabetes) trial.
Effects of clopidogrel and aspirin in combination versus aspirin alone on platelet activation and major receptor expression in diabetic patients: the PLavix Use for Treatment Of Diabetes (PLUTO-Diabetes) trial.
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
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char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
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char = c;code = 99
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char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
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char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = F;code = 70
char = A;code = 65
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = D;code = 68
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = B;code = 66
char = e;code = 101
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = F;code = 70
char = L;code = 76
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = U;code = 85
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = A;code = 65
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = D;code = 68
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = o;code = 111
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = A;code = 65
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = z;code = 122
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = 6;code = 54
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = j;code = 106
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = 3;code = 51
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = z;code = 122
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = S;code = 83
char = U;code = 85
char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = S;code = 83
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = S;code = 83
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = S;code = 83
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 2;code = 50
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = S;code = 83
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = ;code = 32
char = +;code = 43
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = S;code = 83
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
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char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
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char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
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char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = );code = 41
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
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char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
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char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 3;code = 51
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = U;code = 85
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = );code = 41
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = /;code = 47
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 2;code = 50
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = I;code = 73
char = b;code = 98
char = /;code = 47
char = I;code = 73
char = I;code = 73
char = I;code = 73
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result sql = BACKGROUND : Clopidogrel is widely used in diabetic patients after vascular events; however, the ability of this thienopyridine to yield additional antiplatelet protection on top of aspirin has never been explored in a controlled study with comprehensive assessment of platelet activity. The objective of this study was to compare the antiplatelet profiles of clopidogrel + aspirin in combination (C + ASA) versus aspirin alone (ASA) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

METHODS : Seventy patients with documented diabetes already treated with antecedent aspirin were randomly assigned to receive C + ASA or ASA in the PLUTO-Diabetes trial. Platelet studies included adenosine diphosphate-, collagen-, and arachidonic acid-induced aggregometry; PFA-100 (Dade-Behring, Miami, FL) and Ultegra (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA) analyzers; and expression of 6 major receptors by flow cytometry at baseline and at day 30 after randomization.

RESULTS : There were no differences in the baseline clinical and platelet characteristics between the C + ASA and ASA groups, or subsequent significant changes in platelet biomarkers in the ASA group, except for diminished collagen-induced aggregation (P = .02). In contrast, when compared with the ASA group, therapy with C + ASA resulted in significant inhibition of platelet activity assessed by adenosine diphosphate aggregation (P = .0001); closure time prolongation (P = .0003) and reduction of platelet activation units with Ultegra (P = .0001); and expression of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (P = .002), glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antigen (P = .0002), and activity (P = .0001).

CONCLUSION : Treatment with C + ASA for 1 month provides significantly greater inhibition of platelet activity than ASA alone in diabetic patients in this small randomized trial. However, despite dual antiplatelet regimen, diabetic patients exhibit high residual activity of some platelet biomarkers, including unaffected protease-activated receptor 1 receptor expression.

Publication: Am. Heart J. 2008 Jan ;155(1)::93.e1-7.
Publication Date: 2008 Jan
Study Author(s): Serebruany, Victor L;Malinin, Alex I;Pokov, Alex;Barsness, Gregory;Hanley, Dan F;
Institution: HeartDrug Research Laboratories, Towson, MD 21204, USA. Heartdrug@aol.com
Shortcut link to this study:
BACKGROUND : Clopidogrel is widely used in diabetic patients after vascular events; however, the ability of this thienopyridine to yield additional antiplatelet protection on top of aspirin has never been explored in a controlled study with comprehensive assessment of platelet activity. The objective of this study was to compare the antiplatelet profiles of clopidogrel + aspirin in combination (C + ASA) versus aspirin alone (ASA) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

METHODS : Seventy patients with documented diabetes already treated with antecedent aspirin were randomly assigned to receive C + ASA or ASA in the PLUTO-Diabetes trial. Platelet studies included adenosine diphosphate-, collagen-, and arachidonic acid-induced aggregometry; PFA-100 (Dade-Behring, Miami, FL) and Ultegra (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA) analyzers; and expression of 6 major receptors by flow cytometry at baseline and at day 30 after randomization.

RESULTS : There were no differences in the baseline clinical and platelet characteristics between the C + ASA and ASA groups, or subsequent significant changes in platelet biomarkers in the ASA group, except for diminished collagen-induced aggregation (P = .02). In contrast, when compared with the ASA group, therapy with C + ASA resulted in significant inhibition of platelet activity assessed by adenosine diphosphate aggregation (P = .0001); closure time prolongation (P = .0003) and reduction of platelet activation units with Ultegra (P = .0001); and expression of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (P = .002), glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antigen (P = .0002), and activity (P = .0001).

CONCLUSION : Treatment with C + ASA for 1 month provides significantly greater inhibition of platelet activity than ASA alone in diabetic patients in this small randomized trial. However, despite dual antiplatelet regimen, diabetic patients exhibit high residual activity of some platelet biomarkers, including unaffected protease-activated receptor 1 receptor expression.
PMID: 18082496

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