char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
result sql = The safety of probiotics.
The safety of probiotics.
char = P;code = 80
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = L;code = 76
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = 3;code = 51
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 1;code = 49
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 2;code = 50
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 3;code = 51
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
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char = i;code = 105
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result sql = Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that, when consumed, generally confer a health benefit on humans. There is considerable interest in probiotics for a variety of medical conditions, and millions of people around the world consume probiotics daily for perceived health benefits. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and lactococci have generally been regarded as safe. There are 3 theoretical concerns regarding the safety of probiotics: (1) the occurrence of disease, such as bacteremia or endocarditis; (2) toxic or metabolic effects on the gastrointestinal tract; and (3) the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the gastrointestinal flora. In this review, the evidence for safety of the use of or the study of probiotics is examined. Although there are rare cases of bacteremia or fungemia related to the use of probiotics, epidemiologic evidence suggests no population increase in risk on the basis of usage data. There have been many controlled clinical trials on the use of probiotics that demonstrate safe use. The use of probiotics in clinical trials should be accompanied by the use of a data-safety monitoring board and by knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the organism used.

Publication: Clin. Infect. Dis. 2008 Feb 1 ;46 Suppl 2:S104-11; discussion S144-51. :doi: 10.1086/523331.
Publication Date: 2008 Feb 1
Study Author(s): Snydman, David R;
Institution: Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases and Department of Medicine, Tufts-New England Medical Center, and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA. DSnydman@tufts-nemc.org
Shortcut link to this study:
Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that, when consumed, generally confer a health benefit on humans. There is considerable interest in probiotics for a variety of medical conditions, and millions of people around the world consume probiotics daily for perceived health benefits. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and lactococci have generally been regarded as safe. There are 3 theoretical concerns regarding the safety of probiotics: (1) the occurrence of disease, such as bacteremia or endocarditis; (2) toxic or metabolic effects on the gastrointestinal tract; and (3) the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the gastrointestinal flora. In this review, the evidence for safety of the use of or the study of probiotics is examined. Although there are rare cases of bacteremia or fungemia related to the use of probiotics, epidemiologic evidence suggests no population increase in risk on the basis of usage data. There have been many controlled clinical trials on the use of probiotics that demonstrate safe use. The use of probiotics in clinical trials should be accompanied by the use of a data-safety monitoring board and by knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the organism used.
PMID: 18181712

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