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result sql = Cadmium induces lung inflammation independent of lung cell proliferation: a molecular approach.
Cadmium induces lung inflammation independent of lung cell proliferation: a molecular approach.
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char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = L;code = 76
char = D;code = 68
char = 5;code = 53
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char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
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char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
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char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = d;code = 100
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char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
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char = 5;code = 53
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char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 1;code = 49
char = 5;code = 53
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char = ;code = 32
char = 3;code = 51
char = 0;code = 48
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = 4;code = 52
char = 5;code = 53
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = 6;code = 54
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
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char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
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char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
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char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
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char = (;code = 40
char = 5;code = 53
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
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char = K;code = 75
char = g;code = 103
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char = b;code = 98
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char = d;code = 100
char = y;code = 121
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char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
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char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
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char = (;code = 40
char = 5;code = 53
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
char = /;code = 47
char = K;code = 75
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = k;code = 107
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = E;code = 69
char = M;code = 77
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
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char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
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char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
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char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
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char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = -;code = 45
char = 2;code = 50
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char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = M;code = 77
char = P;code = 80
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = E;code = 69
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
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char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
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char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
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char = y;code = 121
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char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
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char = k;code = 107
char = i;code = 105
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char = s;code = 115
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char = (;code = 40
char = C;code = 67
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char = x;code = 120
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char = 2;code = 50
char = ,;code = 44
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char = I;code = 73
char = L;code = 76
char = -;code = 45
char = 6;code = 54
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
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char = c;code = 99
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char = e;code = 101
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char = a;code = 97
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char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
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char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = S;code = 83
char = T;code = 84
char = A;code = 65
char = T;code = 84
char = 3;code = 51
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = k;code = 107
char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = D;code = 68
char = 1;code = 49
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
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char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
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char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
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char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
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char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = E;code = 69
char = L;code = 76
char = I;code = 73
char = S;code = 83
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
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char = .;code = 46
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char = M;code = 77
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char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
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char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
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char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = a;code = 97
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char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
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char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
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char = p;code = 112
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char = o;code = 111
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char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
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char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
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char = a;code = 97
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char = l;code = 108
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char = D;code = 68
char = N;code = 78
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char = a;code = 97
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char = a;code = 97
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char = <;code = 60
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char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = S;code = 83
char = U;code = 85
char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
char = S;code = 83
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char = :;code = 58
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char = P;code = 80
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char = g;code = 103
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char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
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char = p;code = 112
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char = y;code = 121
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char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
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char = .;code = 46
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char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = N;code = 78
char = S;code = 83
char = A;code = 65
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
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char = I;code = 73
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
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char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
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char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
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char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
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char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
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char = i;code = 105
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result sql = BACKGROUND : Cadmium is one of the inflammation-related xenobiotics and has been regarded as a potent carcinogen. The relationship between inflammation and cell proliferation due to chronic infection has been studied, but the mechanism is not fully clear. Though the mode of cadmium toxicity is well characterized in animal cells, still it requires some further investigations. Previously we reported that cadmium induces immune cell death in Swiss albino mice. In the present study we showed that instead of inducing cell death mechanism, cadmium in low concentration triggers proliferation in mice lung cell and our results reveals that prior to the induction of proliferation it causes severe inflammation.

METHODS : Swiss albino mice were treated with different concentrations of cadmium to determine the LD50. Mice were subdivided (5 mice each) according to the exposure period (15, 30, 45, 60 days) and were given sub lethal dose (5 mg/Kg body weight) of cadmium chloride and ibuprofen (50 mg/Kg body weight, recommended dose) once in a week. SEM and histology were performed as evidence of changes in cellular morphology. Inflammation was measured by the expression of Cox-2 and MMPs. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Cox-2, IL-6), signaling and cell cycle regulatory molecules (STAT3, Akt, CyclinD1) were measured by western blot, ELISA and immunoprecipitation. Mutagenecity was evidenced by comet assay. Cell proliferation was determined by cell count, cell cycle and DNA analysis.

RESULTS : Prolonged exposure of low concentration of cadmium resulted in up regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and cell cycle regulatory molecules. Though NSAIDs like Ibuprofen reduces the expression of inflammatory cytokines, but it did not show any inhibitory effect on cadmium adopted lung cell proliferation.

CONCLUSION : Our results prove that cadmium causes both inflammation and cell proliferation when applied in a low dose but proliferative changes occur independent of inflammation.

Publication: J Inflamm (Lond) 2009 ;6:19. :doi: 10.1186/1476-9255-6-19.
Publication Date: 2009
Study Author(s): Kundu, Subhadip;Sengupta, Suman;Chatterjee, Soumya;Mitra, Soham;Bhattacharyya, Arindam;
Institution: Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygange Circular Road, Kolkta-700019, India. [email protected]
Shortcut link to this study:
BACKGROUND : Cadmium is one of the inflammation-related xenobiotics and has been regarded as a potent carcinogen. The relationship between inflammation and cell proliferation due to chronic infection has been studied, but the mechanism is not fully clear. Though the mode of cadmium toxicity is well characterized in animal cells, still it requires some further investigations. Previously we reported that cadmium induces immune cell death in Swiss albino mice. In the present study we showed that instead of inducing cell death mechanism, cadmium in low concentration triggers proliferation in mice lung cell and our results reveals that prior to the induction of proliferation it causes severe inflammation.

METHODS : Swiss albino mice were treated with different concentrations of cadmium to determine the LD50. Mice were subdivided (5 mice each) according to the exposure period (15, 30, 45, 60 days) and were given sub lethal dose (5 mg/Kg body weight) of cadmium chloride and ibuprofen (50 mg/Kg body weight, recommended dose) once in a week. SEM and histology were performed as evidence of changes in cellular morphology. Inflammation was measured by the expression of Cox-2 and MMPs. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Cox-2, IL-6), signaling and cell cycle regulatory molecules (STAT3, Akt, CyclinD1) were measured by western blot, ELISA and immunoprecipitation. Mutagenecity was evidenced by comet assay. Cell proliferation was determined by cell count, cell cycle and DNA analysis.

RESULTS : Prolonged exposure of low concentration of cadmium resulted in up regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and cell cycle regulatory molecules. Though NSAIDs like Ibuprofen reduces the expression of inflammatory cytokines, but it did not show any inhibitory effect on cadmium adopted lung cell proliferation.

CONCLUSION : Our results prove that cadmium causes both inflammation and cell proliferation when applied in a low dose but proliferative changes occur independent of inflammation.
PMID: 19523218

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