char = S;code = 83
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = f;code = 102
char = -;code = 45
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Stem cells, self-renewal, and differentiation in the intestinal epithelium.
Stem cells, self-renewal, and differentiation in the intestinal epithelium.
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = 4;code = 52
char = -;code = 45
char = 5;code = 53
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = z;code = 122
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = L;code = 76
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = 5;code = 53
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = z;code = 122
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = t;code = 116
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = z;code = 122
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
result sql = The mammalian intestine is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells that is renewed every 4-5 days. This high cell turnover makes it a very attractive and comprehensive adult organ system for the study of cell proliferation and differentiation. The intestine is composed of proliferative crypts, which contain intestinal stem cells, and villi, which contain differentiated specialized cell types. Through the recent identification of Lgr5, an intestinal stem cell marker, it is now possible to visualize stem cells and study their behavior and differentiation in a much broader context. In this review we describe the identification of intestinal stem cells. We also discuss genetic studies that have helped to elucidate those signals important for progenitor cells to differentiate into one of the specialized intestinal epithelial cell types. These studies describe a genetic hierarchy responsible for cell fate commitment in normal gut physiology. Where relevant we also mention aberrant deregulation of these molecular pathways that results in colon cancer.

Publication: Annu. Rev. Physiol. 2009 ;71:241-60. :doi: 10.1146/annurev.physiol.010908.163145.
Publication Date: 2009
Study Author(s): van der Flier, Laurens G;Clevers, Hans;
Institution: Hubrecht Institute, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences & University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CT, Utrecht, The Netherlands. l.vanderflier@niob.knaw.nl
Shortcut link to this study:
The mammalian intestine is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells that is renewed every 4-5 days. This high cell turnover makes it a very attractive and comprehensive adult organ system for the study of cell proliferation and differentiation. The intestine is composed of proliferative crypts, which contain intestinal stem cells, and villi, which contain differentiated specialized cell types. Through the recent identification of Lgr5, an intestinal stem cell marker, it is now possible to visualize stem cells and study their behavior and differentiation in a much broader context. In this review we describe the identification of intestinal stem cells. We also discuss genetic studies that have helped to elucidate those signals important for progenitor cells to differentiate into one of the specialized intestinal epithelial cell types. These studies describe a genetic hierarchy responsible for cell fate commitment in normal gut physiology. Where relevant we also mention aberrant deregulation of these molecular pathways that results in colon cancer.
PMID: 18808327

Have comments? Post them here:

comments powered by Disqus

Get breaking news about nutritional cures, dangerous chemicals, superfoods . and more.

Subscribe to the FREE Natural News email newsletter. Your privacy is protected.