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result sql = Removal of sulfate from high-strength wastewater by crystallisation.
Removal of sulfate from high-strength wastewater by crystallisation.
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char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 2;code = 50
char = -;code = 45
char = 5;code = 53
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = k;code = 107
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = 2;code = 50
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = N;code = 78
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 2;code = 50
char = .;code = 46
char = 6;code = 54
char = x;code = 120
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = (;code = 40
char = -;code = 45
char = 3;code = 51
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = 2;code = 50
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 2;code = 50
char = 2;code = 50
char = x;code = 120
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = (;code = 40
char = -;code = 45
char = 3;code = 51
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = 2;code = 50
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = J;code = 74
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = H;code = 72
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = G;code = 71
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = k;code = 107
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = ;code = 32
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result sql = Sulfate causes considerable problems in anaerobic digesters, related to generation of sulfides, loss of electrons (and hence methane), and contamination of gas streams. Removal of sulfides is generally expensive, and still results in methane losses. In this paper, we evaluate the use of precipitation for low-cost sulfate removal, in highly contaminated streams (>1 gS L(-1)). The main precipitate assessed is calcium sulfate (gypsum), though the formation of complex precipitates such as jarosite and ettringite to remove residual sulfate is also evaluated. THE FOUR MAIN CONCERNS IN CONTAMINATED WASTEWATER ARE: - high solubility, caused by high ion activity and ion pairing; slow kinetics; inhibition of nucleation; and poisoning of crystals by impurities, rendering product unsuitable for reuse as seed. These concerns were addressed through batch experiments on a landfill wastewater with a similar composition to other sulfate rich industrial wastewaters (high levels of organic and inorganic contaminants). Crystallisation rates were rapid and comparable to what is observed by others for pure solutions (2-5 h). The kinetics of crystallisation showed a 2nd order dependence on supersaturation, which have implications for crystalliser design, as discussed in the paper. No spontaneous nucleation was observed (seed was required). Seed poisoning did not occur, and product crystals were as effective as pure seed. Solubility was increased by an order of magnitude compared to a pure solution (2.6x10(-3) M2 vs. 0.22x10(-3) M2). As evaluated using equilibrium modelling, this was caused equally by non-specific ion activity, and specific ion pairing. Jarosite and ettringite could not be formed at reasonable pH and temperature levels. Given the lack of complex precipitates, and relatively high solubility, gypsum crystallisation cannot practically be used to remove sulfate to very low levels, and gas-sulfide treatment will likely still be required. It can however, be used for low-cost bulk removal of sulfate.

Publication: Water Res. 2009 Feb ;43(3)::762-72. :doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2008.11.008.
Publication Date: 2009 Feb
Study Author(s): Tait, Stephan;Clarke, William P;Keller, Jurg;Batstone, Damien J;
Institution: Advanced Water Management Centre, School of Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.
Shortcut link to this study:
Sulfate causes considerable problems in anaerobic digesters, related to generation of sulfides, loss of electrons (and hence methane), and contamination of gas streams. Removal of sulfides is generally expensive, and still results in methane losses. In this paper, we evaluate the use of precipitation for low-cost sulfate removal, in highly contaminated streams (>1 gS L(-1)). The main precipitate assessed is calcium sulfate (gypsum), though the formation of complex precipitates such as jarosite and ettringite to remove residual sulfate is also evaluated. THE FOUR MAIN CONCERNS IN CONTAMINATED WASTEWATER ARE: - high solubility, caused by high ion activity and ion pairing; slow kinetics; inhibition of nucleation; and poisoning of crystals by impurities, rendering product unsuitable for reuse as seed. These concerns were addressed through batch experiments on a landfill wastewater with a similar composition to other sulfate rich industrial wastewaters (high levels of organic and inorganic contaminants). Crystallisation rates were rapid and comparable to what is observed by others for pure solutions (2-5 h). The kinetics of crystallisation showed a 2nd order dependence on supersaturation, which have implications for crystalliser design, as discussed in the paper. No spontaneous nucleation was observed (seed was required). Seed poisoning did not occur, and product crystals were as effective as pure seed. Solubility was increased by an order of magnitude compared to a pure solution (2.6x10(-3) M2 vs. 0.22x10(-3) M2). As evaluated using equilibrium modelling, this was caused equally by non-specific ion activity, and specific ion pairing. Jarosite and ettringite could not be formed at reasonable pH and temperature levels. Given the lack of complex precipitates, and relatively high solubility, gypsum crystallisation cannot practically be used to remove sulfate to very low levels, and gas-sulfide treatment will likely still be required. It can however, be used for low-cost bulk removal of sulfate.
PMID: 19059623

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