char = G;code = 71
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
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char = e;code = 101
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char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
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char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
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char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
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char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
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char = n;code = 110
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char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Glutathione peroxidases in different stages of carcinogenesis.
Glutathione peroxidases in different stages of carcinogenesis.
char = C;code = 67
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char = c;code = 99
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char = l;code = 108
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char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
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char = h;code = 104
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char = h;code = 104
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char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
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char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
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char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
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char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
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char = y;code = 121
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char = c;code = 99
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char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
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char = O;code = 79
char = S;code = 83
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char = p;code = 112
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char = m;code = 109
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char = g;code = 103
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char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
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char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
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char = s;code = 115
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char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
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char = h;code = 104
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char = o;code = 111
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char = o;code = 111
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char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
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char = e;code = 101
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char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
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char = o;code = 111
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char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
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char = c;code = 99
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char = o;code = 111
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char = .;code = 46
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char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
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char = (;code = 40
char = G;code = 71
char = P;code = 80
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char = s;code = 115
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
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char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
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char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
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char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
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char = o;code = 111
char = .;code = 46
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char = G;code = 71
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char = 1;code = 49
char = ,;code = 44
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char = c;code = 99
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char = y;code = 121
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char = ;code = 32
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char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = y;code = 121
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char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
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char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
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char = l;code = 108
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char = s;code = 115
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char = c;code = 99
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char = o;code = 111
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char = ;code = 32
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char = S;code = 83
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char = N;code = 78
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char = v;code = 118
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char = i;code = 105
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char = o;code = 111
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char = o;code = 111
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char = s;code = 115
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char = P;code = 80
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char = b;code = 98
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char = t;code = 116
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char = b;code = 98
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char = t;code = 116
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char = i;code = 105
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
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char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
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char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
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char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
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char = a;code = 97
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char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
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char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
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char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
result sql = Cancer cells produce high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and evade apoptosis. Hydroperoxides support proliferation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis, but at higher levels induce apoptosis, thus being pro- and anti-carcinogenic. Accordingly, glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) regulating hydroperoxide levels might have dual roles too. GPx1, clearly an antioxidant enzyme, is down-regulated in many cancer cells. Its main role would be prevention of cancer initiation by ROS-mediated DNA damage. GPx2 is up-regulated in cancer cells. GPx1/GPx2 double knockout mice develop colitis and intestinal cancer. However, GPx2 knockdown cancer cells grow better in vitro and in vivo probably reflecting the physiological role of GPx2 in intestinal mucosa homeostasis. GPx2 counteracts COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production, which explains its potential to inhibit migration and invasion of cultured cancer cells. Overexpression of GPx3 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. GPx4 is decreased in cancer tissues. GPx4-overexpressing cancer cells have low COX-2 activity and tumors derived therefrom are smaller than from control cells and do not metastasize. Collectively, GPxs prevent cancer initiation by removing hydroperoxides. GPx4 inhibits but GPx2 supports growth of established tumors. Metastasis, but also apoptosis, is inhibited by all GPxs. GPx-mediated regulation of COX/LOX activities may be relevant to early stages of inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis.

Publication: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2009 Nov ;1790(11)::1555-68. :doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2009.03.006.
Publication Date: 2009 Nov
Study Author(s): Brigelius-Flohé, Regina;Kipp, Anna;
Institution: Department Biochemistry of Micronutrients, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany. [email protected]fe.de
Shortcut link to this study:
Cancer cells produce high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and evade apoptosis. Hydroperoxides support proliferation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis, but at higher levels induce apoptosis, thus being pro- and anti-carcinogenic. Accordingly, glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) regulating hydroperoxide levels might have dual roles too. GPx1, clearly an antioxidant enzyme, is down-regulated in many cancer cells. Its main role would be prevention of cancer initiation by ROS-mediated DNA damage. GPx2 is up-regulated in cancer cells. GPx1/GPx2 double knockout mice develop colitis and intestinal cancer. However, GPx2 knockdown cancer cells grow better in vitro and in vivo probably reflecting the physiological role of GPx2 in intestinal mucosa homeostasis. GPx2 counteracts COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production, which explains its potential to inhibit migration and invasion of cultured cancer cells. Overexpression of GPx3 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. GPx4 is decreased in cancer tissues. GPx4-overexpressing cancer cells have low COX-2 activity and tumors derived therefrom are smaller than from control cells and do not metastasize. Collectively, GPxs prevent cancer initiation by removing hydroperoxides. GPx4 inhibits but GPx2 supports growth of established tumors. Metastasis, but also apoptosis, is inhibited by all GPxs. GPx-mediated regulation of COX/LOX activities may be relevant to early stages of inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis.
PMID: 19289149

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