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result sql = Natural fluoride levels in the drinking water, water fluoridation and estimated risk of dental fluorosis in a tropical region of Brazil.
Natural fluoride levels in the drinking water, water fluoridation and estimated risk of dental fluorosis in a tropical region of Brazil.
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char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = S;code = 83
char = U;code = 85
char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 6;code = 54
char = 7;code = 55
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 7;code = 55
char = 5;code = 53
char = %;code = 37
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = F;code = 70
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
char = /;code = 47
char = l;code = 108
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 6;code = 54
char = 3;code = 51
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = 7;code = 55
char = 3;code = 51
char = %;code = 37
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = <;code = 60
char = ;code = 32
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 5;code = 53
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
char = /;code = 47
char = l;code = 108
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = 2;code = 50
char = 8;code = 56
char = ,;code = 44
char = 2;code = 50
char = 2;code = 50
char = 2;code = 50
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = ';code = 39
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ';code = 39
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 6;code = 54
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 8;code = 56
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
char = /;code = 47
char = l;code = 108
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 1;code = 49
char = 6;code = 54
char = ,;code = 44
char = 7;code = 55
char = 2;code = 50
char = 4;code = 52
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
char = /;code = 47
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = 0;code = 48
char = .;code = 46
char = 7;code = 55
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = g;code = 103
char = /;code = 47
char = l;code = 108
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = C;code = 67
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = C;code = 67
char = L;code = 76
char = U;code = 85
char = S;code = 83
char = I;code = 73
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = I;code = 73
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = B;code = 66
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = z;code = 122
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = k;code = 107
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = j;code = 106
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = k;code = 107
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
result sql = PURPOSE : The aim of the present study was to determine the natural fluoride levels in the drinking water supplies of a tropical area of Brazil to identify the cities at risk of high prevalence of dental fluorosis and to provide data for future water fluoridation projects in the region.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study was carried out in Paraíba, in the north-eastern region of Brazil. A total of 223 cities were selected, and local health workers were instructed to collect three samples of drinking water: one from the main public water supply and the other two from a public or residential tap with the same water source. Fluoride analyses were carried out in duplicate using a fluoride-specific electrode coupled to an ion analyser.

RESULTS : A total of 167 cities (75%) provided water samples for analysis. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm (mg/l). Samples from most of the cities (n = 163, 73%) presented low levels of fluoride (< 0.5 mg/l). Samples from three cities (a total estimate of 28,222 inhabitants exposed) presented 'optimum' fluoride levels (0.6 to 0.8 mg/l). Samples from one city (16,724 inhabitants) with 1.0 mg/l of fluoride in the water were above the recommended level (0.7 mg/l) for the local temperature.

CONCLUSIONS : It can be concluded that the cities in this area of Brazil presented low natural fluoride levels in the drinking water and could implement controlled water fluoridation projects when technical requirements are accomplished. A high or a moderate prevalence of dental fluorosis due to the intake of natural fluoride in the drinking water is likely to take place in one city only.

Publication: Oral Health Prev Dent 2010 ;8(1)::71-5.
Publication Date: 2010
Study Author(s): Sampaio, Fábio Correia;Silva, Fábia Danielle;Silva, Andréa Cristina;Machado, Ana Thereza;de Araújo, Demétrius Antônio;de Sousa, Erik Melo;
Institution: Postgraduate Program in Preventive Dentistry and Pedodontics, Federal University of Paraiba, Campus I, Castelo Branco, 50851-900, Joao Pessosa, Brazil. fabios@ccs.ufpb.br
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PURPOSE : The aim of the present study was to determine the natural fluoride levels in the drinking water supplies of a tropical area of Brazil to identify the cities at risk of high prevalence of dental fluorosis and to provide data for future water fluoridation projects in the region.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study was carried out in Paraíba, in the north-eastern region of Brazil. A total of 223 cities were selected, and local health workers were instructed to collect three samples of drinking water: one from the main public water supply and the other two from a public or residential tap with the same water source. Fluoride analyses were carried out in duplicate using a fluoride-specific electrode coupled to an ion analyser.

RESULTS : A total of 167 cities (75%) provided water samples for analysis. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm (mg/l). Samples from most of the cities (n = 163, 73%) presented low levels of fluoride (< 0.5 mg/l). Samples from three cities (a total estimate of 28,222 inhabitants exposed) presented 'optimum' fluoride levels (0.6 to 0.8 mg/l). Samples from one city (16,724 inhabitants) with 1.0 mg/l of fluoride in the water were above the recommended level (0.7 mg/l) for the local temperature.

CONCLUSIONS : It can be concluded that the cities in this area of Brazil presented low natural fluoride levels in the drinking water and could implement controlled water fluoridation projects when technical requirements are accomplished. A high or a moderate prevalence of dental fluorosis due to the intake of natural fluoride in the drinking water is likely to take place in one city only.
PMID: 20480057

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