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result sql = Cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotics and prebiotics: a review of in vivo and in vitro findings.
Cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotics and prebiotics: a review of in vivo and in vitro findings.
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char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = /;code = 47
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = -;code = 45
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = /;code = 47
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = k;code = 107
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
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result sql = Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probiotic-mediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.

Publication: Int J Mol Sci 2010 ;11(6)::2499-522.
Publication Date: 2010
Study Author(s): Ooi, Lay-Gaik;Liong, Min-Tze;
Institution: School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia; E-Mail: [email protected]
Shortcut link to this study:
Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probiotic-mediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.
PMID: 20640165

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