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result sql = Relationship between depression, fatigue, subjective cognitive impairment, and objective neuropsychological functioning in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Relationship between depression, fatigue, subjective cognitive impairment, and objective neuropsychological functioning in patients with multiple sclerosis.
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char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = S;code = 83
char = U;code = 85
char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = O;code = 79
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = j;code = 106
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 3;code = 51
char = 6;code = 54
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 6;code = 54
char = 1;code = 49
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = j;code = 106
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = O;code = 79
char = R;code = 82
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 7;code = 55
char = 7;code = 55
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = O;code = 79
char = R;code = 82
char = ;code = 32
char = =;code = 61
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 9;code = 57
char = 0;code = 48
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = C;code = 67
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = C;code = 67
char = L;code = 76
char = U;code = 85
char = S;code = 83
char = I;code = 73
char = O;code = 79
char = N;code = 78
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = j;code = 106
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = j;code = 106
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = F;code = 70
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
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result sql = OBJECTIVE : This study explored the influence of depression and fatigue on subjective cognitive complaints and objective neuropsychological impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

METHODS : Data for this study were taken from a randomized controlled trial, comparing 16 weeks of telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy and telephone-administered supportive emotion focused therapy for the treatment of depression. The sample includes 127 patients with MS. The following self-report measures were collected pre- and posttreatment: Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Measures of objective cognitive functioning and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression were administered over the telephone.

RESULTS : Our results showed that changes in depression and fatigue significantly predicted changes in subjective cognitive complaints from pre- to posttreatment, with patients perceiving fewer cognitive problems at posttreatment (beta = .36, p < .001 and beta = .61, p < .001, respectively). Changes in depression and fatigue were not significantly related to changes in objective neuropsychological performance. Improvements in depression and fatigue also predicted improved accuracy in perceiving cognitive abilities from pre- to posttreatment (OR = .77, p < .001 and OR = .90, p < .001, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS : The results of this study suggest that improvements in depression and fatigue through treatment do not influence objective neuropsychological performance in MS patients, but do relate to changes in subjective impairment. Furthermore, these changes improve patients' abilities to accurately perceive their cognitive functioning.

Publication: Neuropsychology 2010 Sep ;24(5)::573-80. :doi: 10.1037/a0019222.
Publication Date: 2010 Sep
Study Author(s): Kinsinger, Sarah W;Lattie, Emily;Mohr, David C;
Institution: Division of Gastroenterology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N. St. Claire St., Suite 1400, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. skinsing@nmff.org
Shortcut link to this study:
OBJECTIVE : This study explored the influence of depression and fatigue on subjective cognitive complaints and objective neuropsychological impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

METHODS : Data for this study were taken from a randomized controlled trial, comparing 16 weeks of telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy and telephone-administered supportive emotion focused therapy for the treatment of depression. The sample includes 127 patients with MS. The following self-report measures were collected pre- and posttreatment: Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Measures of objective cognitive functioning and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression were administered over the telephone.

RESULTS : Our results showed that changes in depression and fatigue significantly predicted changes in subjective cognitive complaints from pre- to posttreatment, with patients perceiving fewer cognitive problems at posttreatment (beta = .36, p < .001 and beta = .61, p < .001, respectively). Changes in depression and fatigue were not significantly related to changes in objective neuropsychological performance. Improvements in depression and fatigue also predicted improved accuracy in perceiving cognitive abilities from pre- to posttreatment (OR = .77, p < .001 and OR = .90, p < .001, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS : The results of this study suggest that improvements in depression and fatigue through treatment do not influence objective neuropsychological performance in MS patients, but do relate to changes in subjective impairment. Furthermore, these changes improve patients' abilities to accurately perceive their cognitive functioning.
PMID: 20804245

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