char = L;code = 76
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Liver fat content determined by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.
Liver fat content determined by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.
char = H;code = 72
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = A;code = 65
char = L;code = 76
char = D;code = 68
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = N;code = 78
char = A;code = 65
char = F;code = 70
char = L;code = 76
char = D;code = 68
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = -;code = 45
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = L;code = 76
char = D;code = 68
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = N;code = 78
char = A;code = 65
char = F;code = 70
char = L;code = 76
char = D;code = 68
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = B;code = 66
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = C;code = 67
char = T;code = 84
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = M;code = 77
char = R;code = 82
char = S;code = 83
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = M;code = 77
char = R;code = 82
char = I;code = 73
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = T;code = 84
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = R;code = 82
char = S;code = 83
char = -;code = 45
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char = n;code = 110
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char = ;code = 32
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char = r;code = 114
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char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
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char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
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char = o;code = 111
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char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
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char = d;code = 100
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char = e;code = 101
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char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
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char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
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char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
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char = m;code = 109
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char = R;code = 82
char = S;code = 83
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char = M;code = 77
char = R;code = 82
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char = q;code = 113
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char = o;code = 111
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char = s;code = 115
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char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
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char = h;code = 104
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char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
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char = c;code = 99
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char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
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char = ;code = 32
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char = d;code = 100
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
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char = >;code = 62
result sql = Hepatic steatosis as the most prevalent liver disorder can either be related to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In both conditions, hepatocytes excessively accumulate fat-containing vacuoles within their cytoplasm, which is the key histological feature. In contrast to ALD, NAFLD is commonly associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity and insulin resistance. To determine increased liver fat content, liver biopsy is currently considered the gold standard. Besides the invasive technique, various other non-invasive techniques have been developed, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based methods. Among these techniques, ultrasound and CT provide only qualitative information about hepatic steatosis, whereas MRS- or MRI-based methods are able to determine even small amounts of fat accurately. These non-invasive magnetic resonance techniques have already proven their great potential, especially in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies regarding various metabolic conditions and medical treatment regimens. In this review, the most common, non-invasive MRS/MRI techniques for assessment of intrahepatic lipid content are described with their inherent advantages and limitations.

Publication: World J. Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr 7 ;16(13)::1560-6.
Publication Date: 2010 Apr 7
Study Author(s): Springer, Fabian;Machann, Jürgen;Claussen, Claus D;Schick, Fritz;Schwenzer, Nina F;
Institution: Section on Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. fabian.springer@med.uni-tuebingen.de
Shortcut link to this study:
Hepatic steatosis as the most prevalent liver disorder can either be related to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In both conditions, hepatocytes excessively accumulate fat-containing vacuoles within their cytoplasm, which is the key histological feature. In contrast to ALD, NAFLD is commonly associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity and insulin resistance. To determine increased liver fat content, liver biopsy is currently considered the gold standard. Besides the invasive technique, various other non-invasive techniques have been developed, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based methods. Among these techniques, ultrasound and CT provide only qualitative information about hepatic steatosis, whereas MRS- or MRI-based methods are able to determine even small amounts of fat accurately. These non-invasive magnetic resonance techniques have already proven their great potential, especially in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies regarding various metabolic conditions and medical treatment regimens. In this review, the most common, non-invasive MRS/MRI techniques for assessment of intrahepatic lipid content are described with their inherent advantages and limitations.
PMID: 20355234

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