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result sql = Mindfulness-based stress reduction versus pharmacotherapy for chronic primary insomnia: a randomized controlled clinical trial.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction versus pharmacotherapy for chronic primary insomnia: a randomized controlled clinical trial.
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char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = -;code = 45
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = C;code = 67
char = T;code = 84
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = z;code = 122
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = L;code = 76
char = U;code = 85
char = N;code = 78
char = E;code = 69
char = S;code = 83
char = T;code = 84
char = A;code = 65
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = k;code = 107
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = -;code = 45
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = M;code = 77
char = A;code = 65
char = I;code = 73
char = N;code = 78
char = ;code = 32
char = O;code = 79
char = U;code = 85
char = T;code = 84
char = C;code = 67
char = O;code = 79
char = M;code = 77
char = E;code = 69
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = I;code = 73
char = S;code = 83
char = I;code = 73
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = Q;code = 81
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = S;code = 83
char = Q;code = 81
char = I;code = 73
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = k;code = 107
char = s;code = 115
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = f;code = 102
char = -;code = 45
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = S;code = 83
char = U;code = 85
char = L;code = 76
char = T;code = 84
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = B;code = 66
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = k;code = 107
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = S;code = 83
char = O;code = 79
char = L;code = 76
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = 8;code = 56
char = .;code = 46
char = 9;code = 57
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = B;code = 66
char = S;code = 83
char = R;code = 82
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 5;code = 53
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = L;code = 76
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = S;code = 83
char = I;code = 73
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = S;code = 83
char = Q;code = 81
char = I;code = 73
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = -;code = 45
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = O;code = 79
char = L;code = 76
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = P;code = 80
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = ;code = 32
char = .;code = 46
char = 0;code = 48
char = 1;code = 49
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = -;code = 45
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = B;code = 66
char = S;code = 83
char = R;code = 82
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = C;code = 67
char = T;code = 84
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = -;code = 45
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = 3;code = 51
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
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result sql = OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as a treatment for chronic primary insomnia.

DESIGN : A randomized controlled trial was conducted.

SETTING : The study was conducted at a university health center.

PATIENTS : Thirty adults with primary chronic insomnia based on criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision, 4th Edition were randomized 2:1 to MBSR or pharmacotherapy (PCT).

INTERVENTIONS : Mindfulness-based stress reduction, a program of mindfulness meditation training consisting of eight weekly 2.5 hour classes and a daylong retreat, was provided, with ongoing home meditation practice expectations during three-month follow-up; PCT, consisting of three milligrams of eszopiclone (LUNESTA) nightly for eight weeks, followed by three months of use as needed. A 10-minute sleep hygiene presentation was included in both interventions.

MAIN OUTCOMES : The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep diaries, and wrist actigraphy were collected pretreatment, posttreatment (eight weeks), and at five months (self-reports only).

RESULTS : Between baseline and eight weeks, sleep onset latency (SOL) measured by actigraphy decreased 8.9 minutes in the MBSR arm (P < .05). Large, significant improvements were found on the ISI, PSQI, and diary-measured total sleep time, SOL, and sleep efficiency (P < .01, all) from baseline to five-month follow-up in the MBSR arm. Changes of comparable magnitude were found in the PCT arm. Twenty-seven of 30 patients completed their assigned treatment. This study provides initial evidence for the efficacy of MBSR as a viable treatment for chronic insomnia as measured by sleep diary, actigraphy, well-validated sleep scales, and measures of remission and clinical recovery.

Publication: Explore (NY) 2011 Mar-Apr ;7(2)::76-87. :doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2010.12.003.
Publication Date: 2011 Mar-Apr
Study Author(s): Gross, Cynthia R;Kreitzer, Mary Jo;Reilly-Spong, Maryanne;Wall, Melanie;Winbush, Nicole Y;Patterson, Robert;Mahowald, Mark;Cramer-Bornemann, Michel;
Institution: College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. gross002@umn.edu
Shortcut link to this study:
OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as a treatment for chronic primary insomnia.

DESIGN : A randomized controlled trial was conducted.

SETTING : The study was conducted at a university health center.

PATIENTS : Thirty adults with primary chronic insomnia based on criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision, 4th Edition were randomized 2:1 to MBSR or pharmacotherapy (PCT).

INTERVENTIONS : Mindfulness-based stress reduction, a program of mindfulness meditation training consisting of eight weekly 2.5 hour classes and a daylong retreat, was provided, with ongoing home meditation practice expectations during three-month follow-up; PCT, consisting of three milligrams of eszopiclone (LUNESTA) nightly for eight weeks, followed by three months of use as needed. A 10-minute sleep hygiene presentation was included in both interventions.

MAIN OUTCOMES : The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep diaries, and wrist actigraphy were collected pretreatment, posttreatment (eight weeks), and at five months (self-reports only).

RESULTS : Between baseline and eight weeks, sleep onset latency (SOL) measured by actigraphy decreased 8.9 minutes in the MBSR arm (P < .05). Large, significant improvements were found on the ISI, PSQI, and diary-measured total sleep time, SOL, and sleep efficiency (P < .01, all) from baseline to five-month follow-up in the MBSR arm. Changes of comparable magnitude were found in the PCT arm. Twenty-seven of 30 patients completed their assigned treatment. This study provides initial evidence for the efficacy of MBSR as a viable treatment for chronic insomnia as measured by sleep diary, actigraphy, well-validated sleep scales, and measures of remission and clinical recovery.
PMID: 21397868

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