char = P;code = 80
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria.
Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria.
char = B;code = 66
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = E;code = 69
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = y;code = 121
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = 6;code = 54
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = j;code = 106
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = k;code = 107
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = c;code = 99
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = j;code = 106
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = D;code = 68
char = N;code = 78
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = B;code = 66
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = S;code = 83
char = C;code = 67
char = R;code = 82
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
result sql = Bacteria have existed on Earth for three billion years or so and have become adept at protecting themselves against toxic chemicals. Antibiotics have been in clinical use for a little more than 6 decades. That antibiotic resistance is now a major clinical problem all over the world attests to the success and speed of bacterial adaptation. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are varied and include target protection, target substitution, antibiotic detoxification and block of intracellular antibiotic accumulation. Acquisition of genes needed to elaborate the various mechanisms is greatly aided by a variety of promiscuous gene transfer systems, such as bacterial conjugative plasmids, transposable elements and integron systems, that move genes from one DNA system to another and from one bacterial cell to another, not necessarily one related to the gene donor. Bacterial plasmids serve as the scaffold on which are assembled arrays of antibiotic resistance genes, by transposition (transposable elements and ISCR mediated transposition) and site-specific recombination mechanisms (integron gene cassettes).The evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance genes in human bacterial pathogens originate from a multitude of bacterial sources, indicating that the genomes of all bacteria can be considered as a single global gene pool into which most, if not all, bacteria can dip for genes necessary for survival. In terms of antibiotic resistance, plasmids serve a central role, as the vehicles for resistance gene capture and their subsequent dissemination. These various aspects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will be explored in this presentation.

Publication: Br. J. Pharmacol. 2008 Mar ;153 Suppl 1:S347-57. :doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707607.
Publication Date: 2008 Mar
Study Author(s): Bennett, P M;
Institution: Bacterial Genetics, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. Peter.M.Bennett@bristol.ac.uk
Shortcut link to this study:
Bacteria have existed on Earth for three billion years or so and have become adept at protecting themselves against toxic chemicals. Antibiotics have been in clinical use for a little more than 6 decades. That antibiotic resistance is now a major clinical problem all over the world attests to the success and speed of bacterial adaptation. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are varied and include target protection, target substitution, antibiotic detoxification and block of intracellular antibiotic accumulation. Acquisition of genes needed to elaborate the various mechanisms is greatly aided by a variety of promiscuous gene transfer systems, such as bacterial conjugative plasmids, transposable elements and integron systems, that move genes from one DNA system to another and from one bacterial cell to another, not necessarily one related to the gene donor. Bacterial plasmids serve as the scaffold on which are assembled arrays of antibiotic resistance genes, by transposition (transposable elements and ISCR mediated transposition) and site-specific recombination mechanisms (integron gene cassettes).The evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance genes in human bacterial pathogens originate from a multitude of bacterial sources, indicating that the genomes of all bacteria can be considered as a single global gene pool into which most, if not all, bacteria can dip for genes necessary for survival. In terms of antibiotic resistance, plasmids serve a central role, as the vehicles for resistance gene capture and their subsequent dissemination. These various aspects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will be explored in this presentation.
PMID: 18193080

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