char = T;code = 84
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Transgenes and transgressions: scientific dissent as heterogeneous practice.
Transgenes and transgressions: scientific dissent as heterogeneous practice.
char = A;code = 65
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = y;code = 121
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char = d;code = 100
char = y;code = 121
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
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char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = k;code = 107
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
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char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = D;code = 68
char = N;code = 78
char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = z;code = 122
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = 2;code = 50
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = ';code = 39
char = C;code = 67
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ';code = 39
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = k;code = 107
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char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
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char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = j;code = 106
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
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char = ,;code = 44
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char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
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char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
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char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
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char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
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char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = ';code = 39
char = I;code = 73
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
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char = ';code = 39
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char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
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char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
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char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
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char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
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char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
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char = m;code = 109
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char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
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char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
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char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
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char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
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char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
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char = o;code = 111
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char = s;code = 115
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char = e;code = 101
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char = o;code = 111
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char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
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char = c;code = 99
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char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
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char = c;code = 99
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char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
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char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
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char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
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char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
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char = i;code = 105
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char = b;code = 98
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char = c;code = 99
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char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
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char = e;code = 101
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char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
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char = a;code = 97
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char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
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char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = ';code = 39
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ';code = 39
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = ';code = 39
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ';code = 39
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = k;code = 107
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = k;code = 107
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
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char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
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char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
result sql = Although scholars in science and technology studies have explored many dynamics and consequences of scientific controversy, no coherent theory of scientific dissent has emerged. This paper proposes the elements of such a framework, based on understanding scientific dissent as a set of heterogeneous practices. I use the controversy over the presence of transgenic DNA in Mexican maize in the early 2000s to point to a processual model of scientific dissent. 'Contrarian science' includes knowledge claims that challenge the dominant scientific trajectory, but need not necessarily lead to dissent. 'Impedance' represents efforts to undermine the credibility of contrarian science (or contrarian scientists) and may originate within or outside of the scientific community. In the face of impedance, contrarian scientists may become dissenters. The actions of the scientist at the center of the case study, Professor Ignacio Chapela of the University of California, Berkeley, demonstrate particular practices of scientific dissent, ranging from 'agonistic engagement' to 'dissident science'. These practices speak not only to functional strategies of winning scientific debate, but also to attempts to reconfigure relations among scientists, publics, institutions, and politics that order knowledge production.

Publication: Soc Stud Sci 2008 Aug ;38(4)::509-41.
Publication Date: 2008 Aug
Study Author(s): Delborne, Jason A;
Institution: Colorado School of Mines, USA. delborne@mines.edu
Shortcut link to this study:
Although scholars in science and technology studies have explored many dynamics and consequences of scientific controversy, no coherent theory of scientific dissent has emerged. This paper proposes the elements of such a framework, based on understanding scientific dissent as a set of heterogeneous practices. I use the controversy over the presence of transgenic DNA in Mexican maize in the early 2000s to point to a processual model of scientific dissent. 'Contrarian science' includes knowledge claims that challenge the dominant scientific trajectory, but need not necessarily lead to dissent. 'Impedance' represents efforts to undermine the credibility of contrarian science (or contrarian scientists) and may originate within or outside of the scientific community. In the face of impedance, contrarian scientists may become dissenters. The actions of the scientist at the center of the case study, Professor Ignacio Chapela of the University of California, Berkeley, demonstrate particular practices of scientific dissent, ranging from 'agonistic engagement' to 'dissident science'. These practices speak not only to functional strategies of winning scientific debate, but also to attempts to reconfigure relations among scientists, publics, institutions, and politics that order knowledge production.
PMID: 19227618

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