char = D;code = 68
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Deciphering the evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds.
Deciphering the evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds.
char = R;code = 82
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = j;code = 106
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = 9;code = 57
char = 9;code = 57
char = 0;code = 48
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = ';code = 39
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = s;code = 115
char = ';code = 39
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
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result sql = Resistance to herbicides in arable weeds is increasing rapidly worldwide and threatening global food security. Resistance has now been reported to all major herbicide modes of action despite the development of resistance management strategies in the 1990s. We review here recent advances in understanding the genetic bases and evolutionary drivers of herbicide resistance that highlight the complex nature of selection for this adaptive trait. Whereas early studied cases of resistance were highly herbicide-specific and largely under monogenic control, cases of greatest concern today generally involve resistance to multiple modes of action, are under polygenic control, and are derived from pre-existing stress response pathways. Although 'omics' approaches should enable unraveling the genetic bases of complex resistances, the appearance, selection, and spread of herbicide resistance in weed populations can only be fully elucidated by focusing on evolutionary dynamics and implementing integrative modeling efforts.

Publication: Trends Genet. 2013 Jul 2 ;:. :pii: S0168-9525(13)00090-5. :doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2013.06.001.
Publication Date: 2013 Jul 2
Study Author(s): Délye, Christophe;Jasieniuk, Marie;Le Corre, Valérie;
Institution: INRA, UMR1347 Agroécologie, Dijon 21000, France. Electronic address: [email protected]
Shortcut link to this study:
Resistance to herbicides in arable weeds is increasing rapidly worldwide and threatening global food security. Resistance has now been reported to all major herbicide modes of action despite the development of resistance management strategies in the 1990s. We review here recent advances in understanding the genetic bases and evolutionary drivers of herbicide resistance that highlight the complex nature of selection for this adaptive trait. Whereas early studied cases of resistance were highly herbicide-specific and largely under monogenic control, cases of greatest concern today generally involve resistance to multiple modes of action, are under polygenic control, and are derived from pre-existing stress response pathways. Although 'omics' approaches should enable unraveling the genetic bases of complex resistances, the appearance, selection, and spread of herbicide resistance in weed populations can only be fully elucidated by focusing on evolutionary dynamics and implementing integrative modeling efforts.
PMID: 23830583

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