char = G;code = 71
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Genetic alterations in glioma.
Genetic alterations in glioma.
char = G;code = 71
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = U;code = 85
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = j;code = 106
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = );code = 41
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = T;code = 84
char = H;code = 72
char = I;code = 73
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = Y;code = 89
char = S;code = 83
char = T;code = 84
char = E;code = 69
char = M;code = 77
char = A;code = 65
char = T;code = 84
char = I;code = 73
char = C;code = 67
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = P;code = 80
char = P;code = 80
char = R;code = 82
char = O;code = 79
char = A;code = 65
char = C;code = 67
char = H;code = 72
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = V;code = 86
char = E;code = 69
char = A;code = 65
char = L;code = 76
char = E;code = 69
char = D;code = 68
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = H;code = 72
char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = E;code = 69
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = A;code = 65
char = J;code = 74
char = O;code = 79
char = R;code = 82
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = A;code = 65
char = T;code = 84
char = H;code = 72
char = W;code = 87
char = A;code = 65
char = Y;code = 89
char = S;code = 83
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = H;code = 72
char = A;code = 65
char = T;code = 84
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = R;code = 82
char = E;code = 69
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = F;code = 70
char = F;code = 70
char = E;code = 69
char = C;code = 67
char = T;code = 84
char = E;code = 69
char = D;code = 68
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = N;code = 78
char = ;code = 32
char = G;code = 71
char = L;code = 76
char = I;code = 73
char = O;code = 79
char = B;code = 66
char = L;code = 76
char = A;code = 65
char = S;code = 83
char = T;code = 84
char = O;code = 79
char = M;code = 77
char = A;code = 65
char = S;code = 83
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = <;code = 60
char = /;code = 47
char = b;code = 98
char = >;code = 62
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = k;code = 107
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = P;code = 80
char = 5;code = 53
char = 3;code = 51
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = R;code = 82
char = B;code = 66
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = D;code = 68
char = H;code = 72
char = 1;code = 49
char = /;code = 47
char = 2;code = 50
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = k;code = 107
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = I;code = 73
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = I;code = 73
char = I;code = 73
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = E;code = 69
char = x;code = 120
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = P;code = 80
char = 5;code = 53
char = 3;code = 51
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
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char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = B;code = 66
char = R;code = 82
char = A;code = 65
char = F;code = 70
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
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char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
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char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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result sql = Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). THIS SYSTEMATIC APPROACH REVEALED THREE MAJOR PATHWAYS THAT ARE AFFECTED IN GLIOBLASTOMAS: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes.

Publication: Cancers (Basel) 2011 ;3(1)::1129-40. :doi: 10.3390/cancers3011129.
Publication Date: 2011
Study Author(s): Bralten, Linda B C;French, Pim J;
Institution: Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. p.french@erasmusmc.nl.
Shortcut link to this study:
Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). THIS SYSTEMATIC APPROACH REVEALED THREE MAJOR PATHWAYS THAT ARE AFFECTED IN GLIOBLASTOMAS: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes.
PMID: 24212656

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