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char = S;code = 83
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char = i;code = 105
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char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
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char = g;code = 103
char = .;code = 46
result sql = 'Do Not Privatize the Giant's Shoulders': Rethinking Patents in Plant Breeding.
'Do Not Privatize the Giant's Shoulders': Rethinking Patents in Plant Breeding.
char = I;code = 73
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char = (;code = 40
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char = R;code = 82
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char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
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char = e;code = 101
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char = r;code = 114
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char = p;code = 112
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char = m;code = 109
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char = e;code = 101
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char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
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char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = p;code = 112
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char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
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char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
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char = a;code = 97
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char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
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char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
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char = a;code = 97
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char = f;code = 102
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char = i;code = 105
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char = e;code = 101
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char = U;code = 85
char = S;code = 83
char = A;code = 65
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char = i;code = 105
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char = c;code = 99
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char = o;code = 111
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char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
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char = E;code = 69
char = u;code = 117
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char = e;code = 101
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char = r;code = 114
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char = l;code = 108
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char = g;code = 103
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char = i;code = 105
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char = i;code = 105
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char = c;code = 99
char = k;code = 107
char = s;code = 115
char = ';code = 39
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = P;code = 80
char = R;code = 82
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
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char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have increasing impacts on plant breeding. Not only varieties but also germplasm and technologies are protected. Intellectual property has also affected corporate concentration in the seed supply chain. While not very controversial in the USA, it is increasingly controversial in Europe after rulings on plant patents concerning nontransgenic crops in 2015. Both political and industry voices call for new interpretations or legislations. Industry initiatives have opened facilitated patent access systems designated 'free access, but not access for free'. Although praiseworthy, they are voluntary and so far limited to vegetable crops. This Opinion article suggests a mandatory system of declaring IPR use linked to variety registration. This compulsory licensing system with 'toll roads, not road blocks', is likely to reward IPRs without delaying breeding progress.

Publication: Trends Biotechnol. 2016 Mar
Publication Date: Mar 2016
Study Author(s): Bjørnstad Åsmund Å ;
Institution: Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Electronic address: [email protected]
Shortcut link to this study:
Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have increasing impacts on plant breeding. Not only varieties but also germplasm and technologies are protected. Intellectual property has also affected corporate concentration in the seed supply chain. While not very controversial in the USA, it is increasingly controversial in Europe after rulings on plant patents concerning nontransgenic crops in 2015. Both political and industry voices call for new interpretations or legislations. Industry initiatives have opened facilitated patent access systems designated 'free access, but not access for free'. Although praiseworthy, they are voluntary and so far limited to vegetable crops. This Opinion article suggests a mandatory system of declaring IPR use linked to variety registration. This compulsory licensing system with 'toll roads, not road blocks', is likely to reward IPRs without delaying breeding progress.
PMID: 27016032

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