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result sql = From agricultural use of sewage sludge to nutrient extraction: A soil science outlook.
From agricultural use of sewage sludge to nutrient extraction: A soil science outlook.
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char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = k;code = 107
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = :;code = 58
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = i;code = 105
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = -;code = 45
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = i;code = 105
char = i;code = 105
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = y;code = 121
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char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = y;code = 121
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;;code = 59
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = g;code = 103
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = M;code = 77
char = A;code = 65
char = P;code = 80
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = -;code = 45
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = r;code = 114
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = r;code = 114
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = R;code = 82
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = >;code = 62
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = >;code = 62
result sql = The composition of municipal wastewater and sewage sludge reflects the use and proliferation of elements and contaminants within society. In Sweden, official statistics show that concentrations of toxic metals in municipal sewage sludge have steadily decreased, by up to 90 %, since the 1970s, due to environmental programmes and statutory limits on metals in sludge and soil. Results from long-term field experiments show that reduced metal pollution during repeated sewage sludge application has reversed negative trends in soil biology. Despite this Swedish success story, organic waste recycling from Swedish towns and cities to arable land is still limited to only about 20 % of the total amount produced. Resistance among industries and consumers to products grown on land treated with sewage sludge may not always be scientifically grounded; however, there are rational obstacles to application of sewage sludge to land based on its inherent properties rather than its content of pollutants. We argue that application of urban organic wastes to soil is an efficient form of recycling for small municipalities, but that organic waste treatment from large cities requires other solutions. The large volumes of sewage sludge collected in towns and cities are not equitably distributed back to arable land because of the following: (i) The high water and low nutrient content in sewage sludge make long-distance transportation too expensive; and (ii) the low plant availability of nutrients in sewage sludge results in small yield increases even after many years of repeated sludge addition. Therefore, nutrient extraction from urban wastes instead of direct organic waste recycling is a possible way forward. The trend for increased combustion of urban wastes will make ash a key waste type in future. Combustion not only concentrates the nutrients in the ash but also leads to metal enrichment; hence, direct application of the ash to land is most often not possible. However, inorganic fertiliser (e.g. mono-ammonium phosphate fertiliser, MAP) can be produced from metal-contaminated sewage sludge ash in a process whereby the metals are removed. We argue that the view on organic waste recycling needs to be diversified in order to improve the urban-rural nutrient cycle, since only recycling urban organic wastes directly is not a viable option to close the urban-rural nutrient cycle. Recovery and recycling of nutrients from organic wastes are a possible solution. When organic waste recycling is complemented by nutrient extraction, some nutrient loops within society can be closed, enabling more sustainable agricultural production in future.


Publication: Ambio 2016 Sep
Publication Date: Sep 2016
Study Author(s): Kirchmann Holger H ; Börjesson Gunnar G ; Kätterer Thomas T ; Cohen Yariv Y ;
Institution: Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden. [email protected]
Shortcut link to this study:
The composition of municipal wastewater and sewage sludge reflects the use and proliferation of elements and contaminants within society. In Sweden, official statistics show that concentrations of toxic metals in municipal sewage sludge have steadily decreased, by up to 90 %, since the 1970s, due to environmental programmes and statutory limits on metals in sludge and soil. Results from long-term field experiments show that reduced metal pollution during repeated sewage sludge application has reversed negative trends in soil biology. Despite this Swedish success story, organic waste recycling from Swedish towns and cities to arable land is still limited to only about 20 % of the total amount produced. Resistance among industries and consumers to products grown on land treated with sewage sludge may not always be scientifically grounded; however, there are rational obstacles to application of sewage sludge to land based on its inherent properties rather than its content of pollutants. We argue that application of urban organic wastes to soil is an efficient form of recycling for small municipalities, but that organic waste treatment from large cities requires other solutions. The large volumes of sewage sludge collected in towns and cities are not equitably distributed back to arable land because of the following: (i) The high water and low nutrient content in sewage sludge make long-distance transportation too expensive; and (ii) the low plant availability of nutrients in sewage sludge results in small yield increases even after many years of repeated sludge addition. Therefore, nutrient extraction from urban wastes instead of direct organic waste recycling is a possible way forward. The trend for increased combustion of urban wastes will make ash a key waste type in future. Combustion not only concentrates the nutrients in the ash but also leads to metal enrichment; hence, direct application of the ash to land is most often not possible. However, inorganic fertiliser (e.g. mono-ammonium phosphate fertiliser, MAP) can be produced from metal-contaminated sewage sludge ash in a process whereby the metals are removed. We argue that the view on organic waste recycling needs to be diversified in order to improve the urban-rural nutrient cycle, since only recycling urban organic wastes directly is not a viable option to close the urban-rural nutrient cycle. Recovery and recycling of nutrients from organic wastes are a possible solution. When organic waste recycling is complemented by nutrient extraction, some nutrient loops within society can be closed, enabling more sustainable agricultural production in future.

PMID: 27651268

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