char = C;code = 67
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
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char = o;code = 111
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char = m;code = 109
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char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = G;code = 71
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = B;code = 66
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = D;code = 68
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = r;code = 114
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = C;code = 67
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = L;code = 76
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels.
Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels.
char = P;code = 80
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char = c;code = 99
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char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
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char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
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char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = W;code = 87
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = r;code = 114
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = x;code = 120
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = G;code = 71
char = B;code = 66
char = H;code = 72
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
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char = r;code = 114
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
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char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
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char = l;code = 108
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char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = 1;code = 49
char = %;code = 37
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
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char = 8;code = 56
char = -;code = 45
char = 2;code = 50
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = 0;code = 48
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = 8;code = 56
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = 4;code = 52
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = );code = 41
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
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char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
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char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
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char = t;code = 116
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
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char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
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char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = G;code = 71
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char = ;code = 32
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char = l;code = 108
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char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
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char = T;code = 84
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char = e;code = 101
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char = o;code = 111
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char = -;code = 45
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char = e;code = 101
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char = l;code = 108
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char = k;code = 107
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char = i;code = 105
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char = i;code = 105
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char = d;code = 100
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char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
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char = P;code = 80
char = O;code = 79
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char = d;code = 100
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char = t;code = 116
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char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
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char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
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char = d;code = 100
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char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
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result sql = Pesticide formulations contain declared active ingredients and co-formulants presented as inert and confidential compounds. We tested the endocrine disruption of co-formulants in six glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), the most used pesticides worldwide. All co-formulants and formulations were comparably cytotoxic well below the agricultural dilution of 1% (18-2000 times for co-formulants, 8-141 times for formulations), and not the declared active ingredient glyphosate (G) alone. The endocrine-disrupting effects of all these compounds were measured on aromatase activity, a key enzyme in the balance of sex hormones, below the toxicity threshold. Aromatase activity was decreased both by the co-formulants alone (polyethoxylated tallow amine-POEA and alkyl polyglucoside-APG) and by the formulations, from concentrations 800 times lower than the agricultural dilutions; while G exerted an effect only at 1/3 of the agricultural dilution. It was demonstrated for the first time that endocrine disruption by GBH could not only be due to the declared active ingredient but also to co-formulants. These results could explain numerous in vivo results with GBHs not seen with G alone; moreover, they challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value for GBHs exposures, currently calculated from toxicity tests of the declared active ingredient alone.

Publication: Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 ;13(3)
Publication Date: 2016
Study Author(s): Defarge Nicolas N ; Takács Eszter E ; Lozano Verónica Laura VL ; Mesnage Robin R ; Spiroux de Vendômois Joël J ; Séralini Gilles-Eric GE ; Székács András A ;
Institution: Institute of Biology, University of Caen Normandy, EA2608 and Network on Risks, Quality and Sustainable Environment MRSH, Esplanade de la Paix, CS 14032, Caen Cedex 5, France. [email protected]
Shortcut link to this study:
Pesticide formulations contain declared active ingredients and co-formulants presented as inert and confidential compounds. We tested the endocrine disruption of co-formulants in six glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), the most used pesticides worldwide. All co-formulants and formulations were comparably cytotoxic well below the agricultural dilution of 1% (18-2000 times for co-formulants, 8-141 times for formulations), and not the declared active ingredient glyphosate (G) alone. The endocrine-disrupting effects of all these compounds were measured on aromatase activity, a key enzyme in the balance of sex hormones, below the toxicity threshold. Aromatase activity was decreased both by the co-formulants alone (polyethoxylated tallow amine-POEA and alkyl polyglucoside-APG) and by the formulations, from concentrations 800 times lower than the agricultural dilutions; while G exerted an effect only at 1/3 of the agricultural dilution. It was demonstrated for the first time that endocrine disruption by GBH could not only be due to the declared active ingredient but also to co-formulants. These results could explain numerous in vivo results with GBHs not seen with G alone; moreover, they challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value for GBHs exposures, currently calculated from toxicity tests of the declared active ingredient alone.
PMID: 26927151

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