char = M;code = 77
char = u;code = 117
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char = i;code = 105
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char = a;code = 97
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char = p;code = 112
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char = c;code = 99
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char = c;code = 99
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char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
result sql = Multitargeted therapy of cancer by lycopene.
Multitargeted therapy of cancer by lycopene.
char = L;code = 76
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char = m;code = 109
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char = t;code = 116
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char = t;code = 116
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char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
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char = o;code = 111
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char = ;code = 32
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char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
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char = a;code = 97
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char = p;code = 112
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char = k;code = 107
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char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = r;code = 114
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char = t;code = 116
char = ,;code = 44
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char = d;code = 100
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char = g;code = 103
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char = a;code = 97
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char = .;code = 46
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char = U;code = 85
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char = e;code = 101
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char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
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char = a;code = 97
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char = c;code = 99
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char = e;code = 101
char = ,;code = 44
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char = e;code = 101
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char = b;code = 98
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char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
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char = A;code = 65
char = ;code = 32
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char = i;code = 105
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char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
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char = t;code = 116
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char = e;code = 101
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char = 1;code = 49
char = 1;code = 49
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
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char = j;code = 106
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char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
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char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
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char = o;code = 111
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char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = -;code = 45
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = j;code = 106
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
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char = e;code = 101
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char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
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char = d;code = 100
char = s;code = 115
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char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
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char = l;code = 108
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char = c;code = 99
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char = m;code = 109
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char = k;code = 107
char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
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char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = l;code = 108
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char = r;code = 114
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char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
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char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
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char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
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char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
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char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
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char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = d;code = 100
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char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
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char = a;code = 97
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char = i;code = 105
char = -;code = 45
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char = a;code = 97
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char = c;code = 99
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char = i;code = 105
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char = r;code = 114
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char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
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char = c;code = 99
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char = b;code = 98
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char = e;code = 101
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char = a;code = 97
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char = c;code = 99
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char = s;code = 115
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char = t;code = 116
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char = v;code = 118
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char = y;code = 121
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char = i;code = 105
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char = o;code = 111
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char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
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char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
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char = a;code = 97
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char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
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char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
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char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
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char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
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char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
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char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
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char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
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char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
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char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
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char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
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char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
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char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
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char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
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char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
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char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = p;code = 112
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char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = -;code = 45
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = g;code = 103
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
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char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
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char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
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char = i;code = 105
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char = ;code = 32
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char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
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char = s;code = 115
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char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
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char = n;code = 110
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char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
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char = ;code = 32
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char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
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char = c;code = 99
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char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
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char = y;code = 121
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = L;code = 76
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
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char = e;code = 101
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char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
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char = ;code = 32
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char = b;code = 98
char = s;code = 115
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char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
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char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = -;code = 45
char = 9;code = 57
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char = ,;code = 44
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = ';code = 39
char = -;code = 45
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = y;code = 121
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = (;code = 40
char = C;code = 67
char = M;code = 77
char = O;code = 79
char = 2;code = 50
char = );code = 41
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = -;code = 45
char = 1;code = 49
char = 0;code = 48
char = ';code = 39
char = -;code = 45
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = A;code = 65
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = P;code = 80
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = I;code = 73
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = u;code = 117
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = b;code = 98
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = a;code = 97
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = q;code = 113
char = u;code = 117
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
result sql = Lycopene (psi,psi-carotene) is the most abundant carotenoid in tomatoes and is the red pigment of not only tomatoes but also rosehips, watermelon, papaya, pink grapefruit, and guava. Unlike beta-carotene, lycopene lacks a beta-ionone ring and therefore has no pro-vitamin A activity. However, the 11 conjugated and two non-conjugated double bonds in lycopene make it highly reactive towards oxygen and free radicals, and this anti-oxidant activity probably contributes to its efficacy as a chemoprevention agent. The reactivity of lycopene also explains why it isomerizes rapidly in blood and tissues from the biosynthetic all-trans form to a mixture of cis-isomers. Prospective and retrospective epidemiological studies indicating an inverse relationship between lycopene intake and prostate cancer risk have been supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments showing that oral lycopene is bioavailable, accumulates in prostate tissue and is localized to the nucleus of prostate epithelial cells. In addition to antioxidant activity, in vitro experiments indicate other mechanisms of chemoprevention by lycopene including induction of apoptosis and antiproliferation in cancer cells, anti-metastatic activity, and the upregulation of the antioxidant response element leading to the synthesis of cytoprotective enzymes. Lycopene is a substrate for carotene-9',10'-monooxygenase (CMO2) and can be converted to apo-10'-carotenal. Although Phase I and II studies have been published that establish the safety of lycopene supplementation, carefully designed and adequately powered clinical studies of lycopene are still needed to confirm its efficacy as a chemoprevention agent.

Publication: Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8 ;269(2)::339-51. :doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2008.05.016.
Publication Date: 2008 Oct 8
Study Author(s): van Breemen, Richard B;Pajkovic, Natasa;
Institution: Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois College of Pharmacy, 833 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. breemen@uic.edu
Shortcut link to this study:
Lycopene (psi,psi-carotene) is the most abundant carotenoid in tomatoes and is the red pigment of not only tomatoes but also rosehips, watermelon, papaya, pink grapefruit, and guava. Unlike beta-carotene, lycopene lacks a beta-ionone ring and therefore has no pro-vitamin A activity. However, the 11 conjugated and two non-conjugated double bonds in lycopene make it highly reactive towards oxygen and free radicals, and this anti-oxidant activity probably contributes to its efficacy as a chemoprevention agent. The reactivity of lycopene also explains why it isomerizes rapidly in blood and tissues from the biosynthetic all-trans form to a mixture of cis-isomers. Prospective and retrospective epidemiological studies indicating an inverse relationship between lycopene intake and prostate cancer risk have been supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments showing that oral lycopene is bioavailable, accumulates in prostate tissue and is localized to the nucleus of prostate epithelial cells. In addition to antioxidant activity, in vitro experiments indicate other mechanisms of chemoprevention by lycopene including induction of apoptosis and antiproliferation in cancer cells, anti-metastatic activity, and the upregulation of the antioxidant response element leading to the synthesis of cytoprotective enzymes. Lycopene is a substrate for carotene-9',10'-monooxygenase (CMO2) and can be converted to apo-10'-carotenal. Although Phase I and II studies have been published that establish the safety of lycopene supplementation, carefully designed and adequately powered clinical studies of lycopene are still needed to confirm its efficacy as a chemoprevention agent.
PMID: 18585855

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