char = T;code = 84
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = x;code = 120
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = V;code = 86
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = ?;code = 63
result sql = To what extent are soil amendments useful to control Verticillium wilt?
To what extent are soil amendments useful to control Verticillium wilt?
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = V;code = 86
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = u;code = 117
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = k;code = 107
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = g;code = 103
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = T;code = 84
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = V;code = 86
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = l;code = 108
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = l;code = 108
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = y;code = 121
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = m;code = 109
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = /;code = 47
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = -;code = 45
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = O;code = 79
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = V;code = 86
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = y;code = 121
char = l;code = 108
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = z;code = 122
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = z;code = 122
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = x;code = 120
char = y;code = 121
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = z;code = 122
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = -;code = 45
char = S;code = 83
char = -;code = 45
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = l;code = 108
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = k;code = 107
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = y;code = 121
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = h;code = 104
char = y;code = 121
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = p;code = 112
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = g;code = 103
char = e;code = 101
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = V;code = 86
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = -;code = 45
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = n;code = 110
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = i;code = 105
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = S;code = 83
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = w;code = 119
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = e;code = 101
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = h;code = 104
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = V;code = 86
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = H;code = 72
char = o;code = 111
char = w;code = 119
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = b;code = 98
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = i;code = 105
char = g;code = 103
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = y;code = 121
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = g;code = 103
char = l;code = 108
char = o;code = 111
char = b;code = 98
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = r;code = 114
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = e;code = 101
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = I;code = 73
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = i;code = 105
char = e;code = 101
char = w;code = 119
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = m;code = 109
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = l;code = 108
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = c;code = 99
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = n;code = 110
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = g;code = 103
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = e;code = 101
char = f;code = 102
char = f;code = 102
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = a;code = 97
char = c;code = 99
char = y;code = 121
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = a;code = 97
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = o;code = 111
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = m;code = 109
char = e;code = 101
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = o;code = 111
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = g;code = 103
char = a;code = 97
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = V;code = 86
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = c;code = 99
char = i;code = 105
char = l;code = 108
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = u;code = 117
char = m;code = 109
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = p;code = 112
char = .;code = 46
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ,;code = 44
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = l;code = 108
char = i;code = 105
char = m;code = 109
char = i;code = 105
char = t;code = 116
char = a;code = 97
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = f;code = 102
char = u;code = 117
char = t;code = 116
char = u;code = 117
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = s;code = 115
char = p;code = 112
char = e;code = 101
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = i;code = 105
char = v;code = 118
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = s;code = 115
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = h;code = 104
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = d;code = 100
char = u;code = 117
char = c;code = 99
char = t;code = 116
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = a;code = 97
char = r;code = 114
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = c;code = 99
char = u;code = 117
char = s;code = 115
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = d;code = 100
char = ;code = 32
char = i;code = 105
char = n;code = 110
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = e;code = 101
char = r;code = 114
char = m;code = 109
char = s;code = 115
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = t;code = 116
char = h;code = 104
char = e;code = 101
char = ;code = 32
char = c;code = 99
char = o;code = 111
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = r;code = 114
char = o;code = 111
char = l;code = 108
char = ;code = 32
char = o;code = 111
char = f;code = 102
char = ;code = 32
char = p;code = 112
char = l;code = 108
char = a;code = 97
char = n;code = 110
char = t;code = 116
char = ;code = 32
char = d;code = 100
char = i;code = 105
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = a;code = 97
char = s;code = 115
char = e;code = 101
char = s;code = 115
char = .;code = 46
char = <;code = 60
char = b;code = 98
char = r;code = 114
char = /;code = 47
char = >;code = 62
result sql = The genus Verticillium includes several species that attack economically important crops throughout the world. The control of Verticillium spp. becomes especially difficult when they form microsclerotia that can survive in the field soil for several years. It has been common practice to fumigate soil with chemicals such as methyl bromide and/or chloropicrin to control soil-borne fungal pathogens. Other chemicals that are used against Verticillium spp. are the antifungal antibiotic aureofungin, the fungicides benomyl, captan, carbendazim, thiram, azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin and the plant defence activator acibenzolar-S-methyl. However, the potential risks involved in applying phytochemicals to crop plants for both the environment and human health, together with their limited efficacy for controlling Verticillium-induced diseases, support the need to find alternatives to replace their use or improve their efficacy. Soil amendment with animal or plant organic debris is a cultural practice that has long been used to control Verticillium spp. However, today the organic farming industry is becoming a significant player in the global agricultural production scene. In this review, some of the main results concerning the efficacy of several soil amendments as plant protectors against Verticillium spp. are covered, and the limitations and future perspectives of such products are discussed in terms of the control of plant diseases.

Publication: Pest Manag. Sci. 2009 Aug ;65(8)::831-9. :doi: 10.1002/ps.1774.
Publication Date: 2009 Aug
Study Author(s): Goicoechea, Nieves;
Institution: Departamento de Biología Vegetal, Sección Biología Vegetal (Unidad Asociada al CSIC, EEAD, Zaragoza), Facultades de Ciencias y Farmacia, Universidad de Navarra, c/Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Spain. niegoi@unav.es
Shortcut link to this study:
The genus Verticillium includes several species that attack economically important crops throughout the world. The control of Verticillium spp. becomes especially difficult when they form microsclerotia that can survive in the field soil for several years. It has been common practice to fumigate soil with chemicals such as methyl bromide and/or chloropicrin to control soil-borne fungal pathogens. Other chemicals that are used against Verticillium spp. are the antifungal antibiotic aureofungin, the fungicides benomyl, captan, carbendazim, thiram, azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin and the plant defence activator acibenzolar-S-methyl. However, the potential risks involved in applying phytochemicals to crop plants for both the environment and human health, together with their limited efficacy for controlling Verticillium-induced diseases, support the need to find alternatives to replace their use or improve their efficacy. Soil amendment with animal or plant organic debris is a cultural practice that has long been used to control Verticillium spp. However, today the organic farming industry is becoming a significant player in the global agricultural production scene. In this review, some of the main results concerning the efficacy of several soil amendments as plant protectors against Verticillium spp. are covered, and the limitations and future perspectives of such products are discussed in terms of the control of plant diseases.
PMID: 19402078

Have comments? Post them here:

comments powered by Disqus

Get breaking news about nutritional cures, dangerous chemicals, superfoods . and more.

Subscribe to the FREE Natural News email newsletter. Your privacy is protected.